Over the past few years, various studies have been performed to detect the changes in precipitable water vapor
(PWV) using a variety of PWV datasets, which can be retrieved from various sensors such as Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers , radiosondes [6, 11], microwave radiometers [12, 13], Raman radar , multifilter rotating shadow band radiometers (MFRSR) , satellite remote sensing [16,17], and ground-based sun photometry [18, 19].
Global Positioning System (GPS) has been used to obtain tropospheric precipitable water vapor
(PWV) for applications in the atmospheric sciences.
Precipitable water vapor
estimates from homogeneously reprocessed GPS data: an intertechnique comparison in Antarctica.
Matrosov, "Analysis of integrated cloud liquid and precipitable water vapor
retrievals from microwave radiometers during the Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean project," Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol.
The relation between ZWD and the water vapor content in atmosphere is expressed by IWV (Integrated Water Vapor) and IPWV (Integrated Precipitable Water Vapor
) and given by the equations (Bevis et al., 1992, 1994; Kleijer, 2004):
And you know that each NDGPS reference location also contains precipitable water vapor
sensors that have increased the accuracy of the precipitation forecasts from the National Weather Service.
According to Seth Gutman, a systems analyst in FSL's Demonstration Division and the GPS integrated precipitable water vapor
(GPS-IPW) project leader, GPS satellite radio signals are slowed by the earth's atmosphere, which results in a delay in the arrival of a signal as compared to propagation in free space.
Cross, "Comparison of precipitable water vapor
derived from radiosonde, GPS, and moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer measurements," Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.
Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) meteorology, which provides all-weather, high-frequency (5 min), precipitable water vapor
estimates, can help.
Nowadays, Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) have heralded a new era for retrieval of atmospheric precipitable water vapor
(PWV) due to its 24-hour availability, global coverage, high accuracy, high spatiotemporal resolution, and low cost [7-10].
Precipitable water vapor
(PW) estimates derived from continuously operating ground-based GPS receivers have been available for some time from NOAA's GPS-Met program, but these observations have been of limited utility to operational forecasters in part due to poor spatial resolution.
Zeng, "Analysis of precipitable water vapor
from GPS measurements in Chengdu region: distribution and evolution characteristics in autumn," Advances in Space Research, vol.