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see bloodblood,
fluid pumped by the heart that circulates throughout the body via the arteries, veins, and capillaries (see circulatory system; heart). An adult male of average size normally has about 6 quarts (5.6 liters) of blood.
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The liquid portion that remains when blood is allowed to clot spontaneously and is then centrifuged to remove the blood cells and clotting elements. It has approximately the same volume (55%) as plasma and differs from it only by the absence of fibrinogen. See Fibrinogen

Blood serum contains 6–8% solids, including macromolecules such as albumin, antibodies and other globulins, and enzymes; peptide and lipid-based hormones; and cytokines; as well as certain nutritive organic materials in small amounts, such as amino acids, glucose, and fats. Somewhat less than 1% of the serum consists of inorganic substances. Small amounts of respiratory gases are dissolved in the serum, as is the gas nitric oxide, which serves as a chemical messenger and vasodilator. Small amounts of waste material are also present. These substances, along with other small molecules which are not bound to blood proteins, are filtered out as blood flows through the kidney. See Blood, Kidney

Certain types of sera, both human and animals, are used in clinical medicine. Immune serum and hyperimmune serum either are developed by naturally occurring disease or are deliberately prepared by repeated injection of antigens to increase antibody titer for either diagnostic tests or the treatment of active disease. These sera are referred to as antisera, since they have a specific antagonistic action against specific antigens. See Antibody, Antigen, Biologicals, Immunity

By custom, the clear portion of any liquid material of animal origin separated from its solid or cellular elements is also referred to as sera. These fluids are more properly referred to as effusions. See Serology


The liquid portion that remains when blood clots spontaneously and the formed and clotting elements are removed by centrifugation; it differs from plasma by the absence of fibrinogen.


1. See blood serum
2. antitoxin obtained from the blood serum of immunized animals
3. Physiol zoology clear watery fluid, esp that exuded by serous membranes
References in periodicals archive ?
Identification of angiotensinogen and complement C3dg as novel proteins binding the proform of eosinophil major basic protein in human pregnancy serum and plasma.
For example, the maternal pregnancy serum concentration, which reflects intrauterine PCB exposure, showed only a small and not statistically significant association with antibody concentrations.
A 1-step sandwich assay format was used with 100 mIU/L of either pregnancy serum PAPP-A or plaque PAPP-A and a blank solution.
All 22 antibodies were raised by standard hybridoma technology with pregnancy serum PAPP-A as immunogen.
However, the location of the epitope related to mAb A4 was altered in ACS serum PAPP-A compared with that in pregnancy serum PAPP-A.
In this study, we used pregnancy serum pool-derived calibrators for the assays for PAPP-A in ACS.
In a previous study of 176 first-trimester pregnancy serum samples, between 0% and 59% nicking was detected [2].
Although it is the principal hCG [beta]-subunit-related molecule in pregnancy urine samples, it is virtually undetectable in pregnancy serum (<0.3% of hCG concentration) [4, 8].
The greatest assay-to-assay variation was 1.9-fold among the 15 pregnancy serum samples (Fig.
Unfortunately, the only commercially available polyclonal antibody against PAPP-A (Dako A230) has been shown to cross-react with proMBP X19, 24], SP1 X22], and haptoglobin X25], all present in pregnancy serum in concentrations greatly exceeding the concentration of PAPP-A.
Identification of angiotensinogen and complement C3dg as novel proteins binding proform of eosinophil major basic protein in human pregnancy serum and plasma.
Location and nature of carbohydrate groups in proform of human major basic protein isolated from pregnancy serum. Biochem Mol Biol Int 1994;33:329-36.