However, this could not be confirmed because their intake pressure operating ranges were limited by surface preignition
, presumably caused by the long-reach spark plug.
The cause of the preignition
and/or detonation could not be determined.
An accelerometer is used to measure preignition
in gasoline-burning engines.
This deposit tends to block proper heat transfer out of the cylinder, raising temperatures throughout the combustion cycle and increasing the tendency toward detonation or preignition
The "ping" associated with low-grade fuel in a car can become preignition
and explosive detonation in an aircraft engine after only seconds of high-power operation, causing engine failure.
The fuel variable included the constant heat of preignition
of dry fuels ([Q.sub.d]: 581 kJ/kg) such that the fuel variable had the same units as intensity (kilowatts per metre):
To reduce the tendency for preignition
, motorists are required to use high-octane fuels, which are more expensive than regular fuels.
Pre-Launch Insurance (sometimes referred to as "preignition
," transit and ground property) is generally maintained by the owner-operator to cover the satellite and related equipment against all risks of physical loss or damage occurring at any time or place prior to launch, including while in the transit, storage, "preignition
(while at the launch site)," mating to the launcher and other phases.
Severe or extreme detonation can quickly lead to engine destruction directly, or by launching preignition
, which can destroy an engine in seconds.
It is worth noting that the conclusions of this study apply to conventional end-gas knock only, and do not consider engine oil impacts on stochastic preignition
, which is a distinctly different phenomenological event.
These insights are extended to the discussion of superknock, which previous studies suggest, is a manifestation of developing detonation (DD) that can occur at low values of [xi] High values of [P.sub.ko] needed for [xi] to be low enough for DDs to occur can only come about because of another stochastic process - preignition
, which is also briefly discussed.
The term "cool flame" is conventionally used to collectively describe the low- and intermediate-temperature (approximately 500K-900 K) oxidative preignition
reactions emerging in reactive systems fed with organic fuels, such as saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, acids, oils, ethers, and waxes [13, 14].