Extrasystole

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Related to premature ventricular contraction: premature atrial contraction

extrasystole

[¦ek·strə′sis·tə·lē]
(medicine)
Premature beat of the heart.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Extrasystole

 

the most common form of arrhythmia. The condition is characterized by irregular heart contractions (extra-systoles) caused by impulses from an additional focus of excitation arising in the myocardium. Since the heart muscle remains unexcitable for some time after every contraction, the next normal impulse usually cannot cause a systole. As a result, a longer than normal contraction, that is, a compensatory pause, occurs. An extrasystole is generally felt as a temporary sinking sensation, or an “interruption in the heart.” Atrial extrasystoles arise in the atria, and ventricular extrasystoles in the ventricles. Extrasystoles may be single or multiple, and they may occur chaotically or with a certain rhythm, for example, after every normal contraction (bigeminal). Sometimes several extrasystoles occur in succession.

Extrasystoles can occur in healthy persons, and, in most cases, occasional infrequent extrasystoles have little clinical significance. Atrial extrasystoles, however, may result from myocardial disease, for example, mitral insufficiency or cardiosclerosis. Frequent atrial extrasystoles in these diseases are an early sign of auricular fibrillation, especially when they occur in rapid succession. Ventricular extrasystoles may result from myocardial disease or neurological, mental, and other disorders. Successive ventricular extrasystoles originating from different places may precede a severe form of arrhythmia called ventricular fibrillation.

Electrocardiography plays an important part in diagnosing ex-trasystoles. Treatment is determined by cause. The administration of antiarrhythmic agents, for example, propranolol and potassium preparations, is sometimes required.

N. R. PALEEV and I. M. KELMAN

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
"Premature ventricular contraction beat detection based on symbolic dynamics analysis," Proc.
Other new rhythms identified included ectopic atrial rhythm (in six patients), premature ventricular contractions (in five), sinus block with first-degree atrioventricular block (in four), junctional rhythms (in three), ST-segment depression (in two), and second-degree atrioventricular block (in two).
He reported on 26 patients with stable New York Heart Association functional class II or III congestive heart failure (CHF) and at least 200 premature ventricular contractions per 24 hours at baseline.
In the coronary care unit, the patient was noted to have frequent premature ventricular contractions and couplets.
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Markowitz et al .[sup][19] found that responder status predicted single premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) and PVC runs but did not predict VT/VF episodes.
Finally, extra beats called premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) are not usually picked up by blood pressure (BP) cuffs, since the PVCs don't cause a significant pulse.
Q: I am an 83-year-old great-grandmother and was diagnosed with benign premature ventricular contractions 40 years ago.
Heart rate turbulence is the biphasic response of the sinus node to premature ventricular contractions. It consists of two parameters--turbulence onset and turbulence slope.
Dobutamine was associated with a significant increase in the number of premature ventricular contractions and repetitive beats; nesiritide was linked to significant decreases in these abnormalities.
Background: Premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) are common in the general population, and frequent PVCs may result in the poor quality of life or even the damage of cardiac function.