premenstrual syndrome

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Related to premenstrual syndrome: premenstrual dysphoric disorder

premenstrual syndrome

(PMS), any of various symptoms experienced by women of childbearing age in the days immediately preceding menstruationmenstruation,
periodic flow of blood and cells from the lining of the uterus in humans and most other primates, occurring about every 28 days in women. Menstruation commences at puberty (usually between age 10 and 17).
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. It is most common in women in their twenties and thirties. Some 70%–90% of menstruating women are said to have PMS on a cyclical basis. There are over 150 symptoms associated with the syndrome, including behavioral changes, eating binges, moodiness, irritability, fatigue, fluid retention, breast tenderness, and headaches. Some women have mild symptoms; others have symptoms that interfere with work or home life. A few are completely incapacitated, a condition called premenstrual dysphoric disorder. The symptoms vary from woman to woman, and each woman's symptoms may vary from month to month, making diagnosis difficult.

The exact cause is unknown. Hormonal imbalances, nutritional deficiencies, and neurotransmitter (serotoninserotonin
, organic compound that was first recognized as a powerful vasoconstrictor occurring in blood serum. It was partially purified, crystallized, and named in 1948, and its structure was deduced a year later.
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 and norepinephrinenorepinephrine
, a neurotransmitter in the catecholamine family that mediates chemical communication in the sympathetic nervous system, a branch of the autonomic nervous system.
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) fluctuations are being studied. PMS patients who have had hysterectomies may continue to have symptoms, but the symptoms in all patients disappear with menopausemenopause
or climacteric
, transitional phase in a woman's life when the ovaries stop releasing eggs, ovarian production of estrogen and other hormones tapers off, and menstruation ceases.
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. There is no cure for PMS. In some women, dietary changes and exercise provide some relief through the loss of water weight, the alleviation of stress, and an increase in the production of endorphinsendorphins
, neurotransmitters found in the brain that have pain-relieving properties similar to morphine. There are three major types of endorphins: beta endorpins, found primarily in the pituitary gland; and enkephalins and dynorphin, both distributed throughout the nervous
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. Antidepressantsantidepressant,
any of a wide range of drugs used to treat psychic depression. They are given to elevate mood, counter suicidal thoughts, and increase the effectiveness of psychotherapy.
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 or antianxiety drugsantianxiety drug,
drug administered for the relief of anxiety. Although their action is not fully understood, most antianxiety medications appear to affect the action of neurotransmitters in the brain (see serotonin and norepinephrine).
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 are sometimes prescribed. In severe cases hormones that induce a premature menopause may be administered.


See publications of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; S. D. Bender, PMS: A Positive Program to Gain Control (1986) and PMS: Questions & Answers (1989); Boston Women's Health Book Collective, Our Bodies, Ourselves for the New Century (1998).

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.

premenstrual syndrome

, tension
a group of symptoms, including nervous tension and fluid retention, any of which may be experienced as a result of hormonal changes in the days before a menstrual period starts
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Premenstrual syndrome among Teacher Training University students in Iran.
Management of premenstrual syndrome: evidence-based guidelines.
In this paper, ten novel AEs (Breast enlargement, breast tenderness, dysmenorrhea, ectopic pregnancy, menorrhagia, menstruation delayed, metrorrhagia, nipple disorder, pregnancy after post-coital contraception and premenstrual syndrome) were identified that were disproportionately reported and associated with the use of LNG by using data mining techniques.
The symptoms of premenstrual syndrome, such as related to anxiety, depression, emotional changes, retention features and somatic symptoms, were studied using questionnaires administered before the intervention, after the first cycle of intervention, and after the second cycle of group counseling and both groups were compared.
Cross tabulation between independent variable of knowledge regarding prevention of premenstrual syndrome and dependent variable of prevalence of premenstrual syndrome was done.
Changes in nutrient intake during the menstrual cycle of overweight women with premenstrual syndrome. Brit Jour Nutr.
Diaz, "Premenstrual syndrome among female university students in thailand," Assumption University Journal of Technology, vol.
Prevalence and impact of premenstrual syndrome in adolescent schoolgirls in the United Arab Emirates.
Erin Oberlander, in her 2010 article, "Premenstrual Syndrome and Its Effects on Laryngeal Function: An Approach for Singers and Pedagogues," writes, "while discussing women's health issues may seem awkward or indiscreet, if a student is in fact, a sufferer of [vocal problems stemming from menstrual cycle hormones], a teacher's refusal to help deal with the situation is pedagogically unsound." (1) However, given the social taboos regarding openness and communication about the menstrual cycle, how might these topics be approached in the voice studio?
Criteria variable PMS PMS PMS \Predictor variable physical behavioral morality Age Intensity 0.61 -0.011 -0.082 Significance 0.236 0.824 0.109 Number 384 384 383 Pearson correlation coefficient is applied in order to test the significance between the age and degree of premenstrual syndrome and symptoms.
Comparison of the effects of Matricaria chamomila (Chamomile) extract and mefenamic acid on the intensity of premenstrual syndrome. Complement Ther Clin Pract 20:81-88.
Evaluation of premenstrual syndrome and quality of life in university students