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see teethteeth,
hard, calcified structures embedded in the bone of the jaws of vertebrates that perform the primary function of mastication. Humans and most other mammals have a temporary set of teeth, the deciduous, or milk, teeth; in humans, they usually erupt between the 6th and 24th
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One of the structures found in the mouth of most vertebrates which, in their most primitive form, were conical and were usually used for seizing, cutting up, or chewing food, or for all three of these purposes. The basic tissues that make up the vertebrate tooth are enamel, dentin, cementum, and pulp (see illustration).

Structure of a toothenlarge picture
Structure of a tooth

Enamel is the hardest tissue in the body because of the very high concentration, about 96%, of mineral salts. The remaining 4% is water and organic matter. The enamel has no nerve supply, although it is nourished to a very slight degree from the dentin it surrounds. The fine, microscopic hexagonal rods (prisms) of apatite which make up the enamel are held together by a cementing substance.

Dentin, a very bonelike tissue, makes up the bulk of a tooth, consisting of 70% of such inorganic material as calcium and phosphorus, and 30% of water and organic matter, principally collagen. The rich nerve supply makes dentin a highly sensitive tissue; this sensitivity serves no obvious physiological function.

Cement is a calcified tissue, a type of modified bone less hard than dentin, which fastens the roots of teeth to the alveolus, the bony socket into which the tooth is implanted. A miscellaneous tissue, consisting of nerves, fibrous tissue, lymph, and blood vessels, known as the pulp, occupies the cavity of the tooth surrounded by dentin.

The dentition of therian mammals, at least primitively, consists of four different kinds of teeth. The incisors (I) are usually used for nipping and grasping; the canines (C) serve for stabbing or piercing; the premolars (Pm) grasp, slice, or function as additional molars; and the molars (M) do the chewing, cutting, and grinding of the food. Primitively the placentals have 40 teeth and the marsupials 50.

In therian mammals, probably because of the intricacies and vital importance of tooth occlusion, only part of the first (or “milk”) dentition is replaced. This second, or permanent, dentition is made up of incisors, canines, and premolars; as a rule only one premolar is replaced in marsupials. Although the molars erupt late in development and are permanent, that is, not replaced, they are part of the first, or deciduous, dentition.

McGraw-Hill Concise Encyclopedia of Bioscience. © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


One of a series of carved ornaments, typically a pyramidal shape or a four-petal flower, usually set in a concave molding band; used in the Romanesque and Gothic Revival styles. See also: Ornament
Illustrated Dictionary of Architecture Copyright © 2012, 2002, 1998 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved


One of the hard bony structures supported by the jaws in mammals and by other bones of the mouth and pharynx in lower vertebrates serving principally for prehension and mastication.
(design engineering)
One of the regular projections on the edge or face of a gear wheel.
An angular projection on a tool or other implement, such as a rake, saw, or comb.
(graphic arts)
The coarse or abrasive quality of a paper or a painting ground that assists in the application of charcoal, pastels, or paint.
A paper texture that holds ink more readily.
(invertebrate zoology)
Any of various sharp, horny, chitinous, or calcareous processes on or about any part of an invertebrate that functions like or resembles vertebrate jaws.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


1. In a paint film, a fine texture imparted either by pigments or by the abrasives used in sanding; this texture provides a good base for the adhesion of a subsequent coat of paint.
2. A dogtooth, 2.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Architecture and Construction. Copyright © 2003 by McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


1. any of various bonelike structures set in the jaws of most vertebrates and modified, according to the species, for biting, tearing, or chewing
2. any of various similar structures in invertebrates, occurring in the mouth or alimentary canal
3. any of the various small indentations occurring on the margin of a leaf, petal, etc.
4. any one of a number of uniform projections on a gear, sprocket, rack, etc., by which drive is transmitted
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
The shape of the floor of the pulp chamber usually indicates the number of canals.29 Usually; the outlines of the pulp chamber of a premolar tooth are bilateral- ly similar in shape of a ribbon.
Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife researchers are asking successful bear hunters throughout Oregon this fall to submit the bear's premolar tooth and female reproductive organs to help with a study designed to more accurately estimate Oregon's bear population.
The new specimen, a lower right jaw, contains all three molar teeth, one complete and one partial premolar tooth, and largely intact roots for a canine and several incisors at the front of the mouth.
The current case describes the management of a nonvital immature mandibular right second premolar tooth with DE that developed pulp necrosis and symptomatic apical periodontitis.
These findings agree with our results but disagree with studies done on other populations such as Saudis, Malays, Asian Indians, Kenyan Africans, Saudis, and on other Sino-American and Sub-Saharan African populations, from different countries, which reported more posterior positions of the mental foramen (Agthong et al.; Aktekin et al.; Al Jasser & Nwoku; Apinhasmit et al.; Cutright et al.; Igbigbi & Lebona; Mbajiorgu et al.; Mwaniki & Hassanali; Ngeow & Yuzawati; Oguz & Bozkir; Wang et al.) or specifically in line with the second premolar tooth (Al Jasser & Nwoku, 1996, 1998; Berkovitz et al., 2002; Liebgott, 2001; Mwaniki & Hassanali; Ngeow & Yuzawati; Phillips et al., 1992a, 1992b; Shankland, 1994; White & Pharoah, 2004; Woelfel & Scheid, 2002).
Frequency of two canals in maxillary second premolar tooth. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2007; 17: 12-14.
The row of cheek teeth curves inward, and the premolar tooth behind the small canine has one cusp -- features found on some previous A.
Morphological analysis suggests that tooth A (indicated in Figures 5(a) and 5(b)) presents a morphology similar to a canine tooth, while tooth B (indicated in Figures 5(c) and 5(d)) resembles a premolar tooth.