In this study, 350 first and second maxillary premolars
were analyzed from 110 CBCT images.
The ultrasonographic determination of the position of the mental foramen and its relation to the mandibular premolar
After first premolar
extraction, the interseptal bone distal to the canine was undermined with a bone bur, grooving vertically inside the extraction socket, along the buccal and lingual sides, and extending obliquely toward the base of the interseptal bone to weaken its resistance.
Images were taken using the New Tom VGi (QR SRL Co., Verona, Italy) using the following inclusion criteria: Age 18 years or older, bilateral presence of mandibular first and second premolar
, and first molar teeth, absence of any pathology, gross malalignment, asymmetry, and fracture in the ROI.
It was also observed that OKC was more dominantly associated in mandibular molars followed by mandibular premolar
which is in line with the study of Planinic et al.25 In current study marsuplization was done in some patients (n = 4) to save the vital structures like Inferior alveolar nerve and lower border of the mandible in cases of OKC.
In order to eliminate the disadvantages of assumptions and ignorants and differences in values of parameters and obtain a better insight into the biomechanical aspects and estimation risk of the endodontically treated maxillary two-rooted first premolar
, the behavior of different direct restoration designs and materials in the treatment of cuspal fracture of maxillary first premolars
should be evaluated with laboratory experiments and long-term clinical trials.
After the appliance, adaptation was clinically checked, and occlusal rests were bonded to the first premolars
to maintain the stability of the appliance.
row is almost equal in length to the molar row (Fig.
The frequency and percentage of the length of root canal fillings according to the tooth type Tooth Type Teeth Number Canal Number Short [less than or equal to]2 mm Upper Molars 15 46 34 14.7% Lower Molars 41 129 60 25.9% Upper Incisors 70 70 48 20.7% Lower Incisors 36 37 24 10.3% Upper Premolars
43 67 42 18.1% Lower Premolars
41 41 24 10.3% Total 246 390 232 100% Length of root canal filling Short Over Filling Flush >2 mm Upper Molars 7 2 3 9.2% 7.4% 5.5% Lower Molars 38 11 20 50.0% 40.7% 36.4% Upper Incisors 8 1 13 10.5% 3.7% 23.6% Lower Incisors 2 5 6 2.6% 18.5% 10.9% Upper Premolars
13 5 7 17.1% 18.5% 12.7% Lower Premolars
8 3 6 15.5% 11.1% 10.9% Total 76 24 58 100% 100% 100% TABLE 2.
Inter second premolar
width: Measurements were made between the buccal cusp tips of right and left second premolars
Method: This retrospective study was conducted from November 2016 to January 2017 at Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, and reviewed Cone Beam Computed Tomography images of maxillary first and second premolars
done from November 2014 to October 2016.
The teeth were classified in groups (maxillary first premolars
, maxillary second premolars
, mandibular first premolars
and mandibular second premolars
) and the following parameters were examined: