# error

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## error,

in law: see appealappeal,
in law, hearing by a superior court to consider correcting or reversing the judgment of an inferior court, because of errors allegedly committed by the inferior court.
.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

## Error

in automatic control systems, the difference between the set point and the actual value of the quantity being controlled in a control process. At any given moment, the error can be regarded as the sum of the static error—the error under steady-state conditions—and the dynamic error—the error in a transient response. In the statistical analysis of automatic control systems, the distinction between steady-state and transient errors loses its meaning, and the quality of performance of such a system is evaluated by criteria associated with the probability characteristics of the error. An example of such a criterion is the minimum mean-square error.

## Error

When a number a is taken as the approximate value of a quantity whose exact value is x, the error of a is the difference xa, which is also called the absolute error. The ratio of xa to a is called the relative error. An error is usually characterized by indicating its maximum possible value. The maximum possible value of the absolute error is the number Δ (a) such that ǀxaǀ ≤ Δ(a). The maximum possible value of the relative error is the number δ(a) such that

The maximum values of relative errors are often expressed as percentages. The numbers Δ(a) and δ(a) are taken as small as possible.

If a is the approximate value of x with a maximum absolute error of Δ(a), this fact can be written x = a ± Δ(a). The analogous expression for the relative error is x = a(1 ± δ(a)).

The maximum values of the absolute and relative errors indicate the maximum possible divergence between x and a. In addition to these values, an error is often characterized by the nature of its origin and by the frequency of occurrence of different values of xa. The methods of probability theory are used in this approach to errors.

The error of the result in the numerical solution of a problem is caused by inaccuracies intrinsic to the formulation of the problem and to the means used to solve it. Errors stemming from the inaccuracy of a mathematical description of an actual process—for example, from an inaccurate statement of the original data—are said to be inherent errors. Errors of method arise because of the inaccuracy of the method used in solving the problem. Computational errors are the result of inaccuracies in computations.

When computations are performed, initial errors pass in succession from operation to operation, accumulating and giving rise to new errors. The appearance and propagation of errors in computational work are studied by numerical analysis.

### REFERENCES

Berezin, I. S., and N. P. Zhidkov. Metody vychislenii, 3rd ed., vol. 1. Moscow, 1966.
Bakhvalov, N. S. Chislennye metody. Moscow, 1973.

G. D. KIM

## error

[′er·ər]
(computer science)
An incorrect result arising from approximations used in numerical methods, rather than from a human mistake or computer malfunction.
(science and technology)
Any discrepancy between a computed, observed, or measured quantity and the true, specified, or theoretically correct value of that quantity.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

## Error

Breeches Bible, the
the Geneva Bible, so dubbed because it stated that Adam and Eve made themselves breeches. [Br. Hist.: Brewer Dictionary, 101]
Cortez
alluded to in a poem by Keats, mistaken for Balboa, as discoverer of Pacific Ocean. [Br. Poetry: “On First Looking into Chapman’s Homer”]
Wicked Bible, the
misprinted a commandment as “Thou shalt commit adultery.” [Br. Hist.: Brewer Dictionary, 102]
seacoast of Bohemia
Shakespearean setting in a land with no seacoast. [Br. Drama: Shakespeare The Winter’s Tale, III,iii]

## error

(1)
A discrepancy between a computed, observed, or measured value or condition and the true, specified, or theoretically correct value or condition.

## error

(programming)
A mental mistake made by a programmer that may result in a program fault.

## error

(3)
(verb) What a program does when it stops as result of a programming error.
References in periodicals archive ?
It was found that 15% of prescribing error in pediatric was due to "tenfold error," and this happened during dose calculation and transaction while using different units (milligrams instead of micrograms).
One of the major factors for these prescribing errors is limited exposure to undergraduate clinical pharmacology teaching (CPT) which may be due to teacher related or curriculum related factors [8].
In 2005, Department of Health in the United Kingdom planned to reduce prescribing errors by 40% 10.
(4) It has been estimated that up to 2% of hospitalised medical patients in the United States might be harmed as a result of a drug error, most of which are prescribing errors. One-fifth of clinical negligence claims originating from hospitals in the UK involve medication errors.
Effects of two commercial electronic prescribing systems on prescribing error rates in hospital in-patients: a before and after study.
Overall, prescribing errors were more than halved and incomplete and unclear drug orders were completely eliminated the study found.
"Outpatient Prescribing Errors and the Impact of Computerized Prescribing." Journal of General Internal Medicine 20 (9): 837-41.
In the category of prescribing errors, there is a high incidence of mistakes with verbal orders (Grissinger & Globus, 2004).
To be "Leapfrog certified" a hospital must demonstrate that its CPOE system can intercept at least 50 percent of common serious prescribing errors. (9)
UNITED KINGDOM--British researchers have begun a pilot study to determine a way to reduce prescribing errors in hospitals by 40 percent.
Pharmacists at a London teaching hospital recorded details of prescribing errors over a four-week period.

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