The first pressure tunnel
with the PTCL was constructed at Piastra-Andonno in Italy in 1974, and many such tunnels have been constructed since then, such as the water conveyance tunnel of Geheyan Hydropower Station, the water conveyance tunnel of the Grimsel project in Switzerland, and the desilting tunnel of Xiaolangdi Dam .
Khechinov, "Minimum steel percent of hydraulic pressure tunnel
linings," Hydrotechnical Construction, vol.
Maier, "Direct search solution of an inverse problem in elastoplasticity: identification of cohesion, friction angle and in situ stress by pressure tunnel
tests," International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, vol.
Four feature points, A1, A2, A3, and A4, were selected from the water diversion tunnel to the high water pressure tunnel
in the underground waterway system for powerhouse A.
Fattor and Bacchiega  concluded that if in the shaft spillways, the spillway is submerged, the discharge rate is 1.34 times more than the flow discharge in free mode and we will have turbulence in the case of non-aeration to the pressure tunnel
in the spillway.
The delegation along with WAPDA Chairman had a detailed round of the site and witnessed the construction activities at weir (dam), head race channel, sand trap, head race tunnel, pressure tunnel
, pressure shaft, surge chamber, and power house area.
In the late 1930s, the Low-Turbulence Pressure Tunnel
came on line and was used along with other tunnels to develop advanced airfoils that were applied to several aircraft in the early 1940s.
Linking them was the Catskill Aqueduct, a concrete-lined conduit which was, in some places, a tube laid in a trench and covered with earth, and in others, a pressure tunnel
hewn through bedrock.
Stage 1 is a 13.2-mi, 24-ft diameter concrete-lined pressure tunnel
that runs south from the Hill View Reservoir in Yonkers into the Bronx, through Manhattan and Central Park, and then under the East River to Long Island City in Queens.
(1) The stability of the steel lining at the collapse zone under the internal water pressure during the operating period: during the operation of a pressure tunnel
, internal water pressure is the primary load borne jointly by the lining, the concrete layer, and the surrounding rocks .
Golen Gol Lot-II involves construction of diversion weir, intake, gravel trap, sand trap, headrace tunnel, pressure shaft, pressure tunnel