Premature Birth

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Premature Birth

 

the premature ending of pregnancy, the birth of a premature infant. According to various statistics, 2.5 to 5–6 percent of all births are premature. There are various causes of premature birth. Some are associated with the fetus, and others with the mother. The causes include congenital defects in the development of the ovum, hydramnios, anomalies of placental attachment, improper fetal position, gestoses, previous abortions, multiple pregnancy, chronic and acute infections (brucellosis, toxoplasmosis, listeriosis, influenza, tonsillitis, viral hepatitis), inflammatory processes of the sexual organs, neoplasms, infantilism, and muscular insufficiency of the upper uterine cervix. Neuroendocrine disorders (ovarian and thyroid functional disturbances, diabetes) can also cause premature birth. Women with diseases of the kidneys, liver, and cardiovascular and nervous systems often give birth prematurely.

Conservative treatment is directed toward removing the basic causes of the premature birth. Surgery is required when there is muscular insufficiency of the upper uterine cervix. Treatment is administered before and during pregnancy. Preventive and therapeutic measures are directed toward detecting and removing the basic causes of premature birth. Such measures consist primarily of prenatal care of both the mother and fetus.

REFERENCES

Persianinov, L. S. “Profilaktika i lechenie pri nedonashivanii beremennosti.” In Zhenskaia konsul’tatsiia, 2nd ed. Minsk, 1962.
Konstantinov, V. I. “Nedonashivanie i perenashivanie beremennosti.” In Mnogotomnoe rukovodstvo po akusherstvu i ginekologii, vol. 3, book 1. Moscow, 1964.
Bodiazhina, V. I., A. I. Liubimova, and I. S. Rozovskii. Privychnyi vykidysh. Moscow, 1973.

O. K. NIKONCHIK

References in periodicals archive ?
The main concerns in caring for a preterm baby are feeding issues as the baby would not have developed good sucking as compared to a term baby.
An important aspect of prevention of preterm birth is adequate maternal nutrition which is critical for foetal development.
Schulze and her colleagues prospectively followed 69 couples in which the woman was admitted to the hospital at high risk of preterm birth.
A single repeat course of antenatal corticosteroids should be considered in women who are less than 34 0/7 weeks of gestation who have an imminent risk of preterm delivery within the next 7 days and whose prior course of antenatal corticosteroids was administered more than 14 days previously.
Argyelan noted that the current Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine (SMFM) position regarding cervical length screening is that it should not yet be universally mandated for singleton pregnancies without a prior history of preterm birth.
6) Another retrospective review of more than 230,000 newborns, of which 19,000 were born in the late preterm period, revealed that more neonates born between 34 and 36 weeks' gestation had respiratory distress syndrome than neonates delivered at 39 weeks (10.
The change in age distribution contributed to the preterm birth rate decrease (as indicated by the negative values) only among mothers aged [less than or equal to] 24 years.
76 late preterm and an equal number of term infants were enrolled.
Targeted counseling and interventions should focus on early smoking cessation in this group of mothers who are at an inherently high risk of preterm birth, as it results in the most substantial risk reduction for delivering prior to 37 weeks.
In the past three decades there have been many efforts to develop the appropriate methods that will correctly predict preterm delivery.