Premature Birth

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Premature Birth


the premature ending of pregnancy, the birth of a premature infant. According to various statistics, 2.5 to 5–6 percent of all births are premature. There are various causes of premature birth. Some are associated with the fetus, and others with the mother. The causes include congenital defects in the development of the ovum, hydramnios, anomalies of placental attachment, improper fetal position, gestoses, previous abortions, multiple pregnancy, chronic and acute infections (brucellosis, toxoplasmosis, listeriosis, influenza, tonsillitis, viral hepatitis), inflammatory processes of the sexual organs, neoplasms, infantilism, and muscular insufficiency of the upper uterine cervix. Neuroendocrine disorders (ovarian and thyroid functional disturbances, diabetes) can also cause premature birth. Women with diseases of the kidneys, liver, and cardiovascular and nervous systems often give birth prematurely.

Conservative treatment is directed toward removing the basic causes of the premature birth. Surgery is required when there is muscular insufficiency of the upper uterine cervix. Treatment is administered before and during pregnancy. Preventive and therapeutic measures are directed toward detecting and removing the basic causes of premature birth. Such measures consist primarily of prenatal care of both the mother and fetus.


Persianinov, L. S. “Profilaktika i lechenie pri nedonashivanii beremennosti.” In Zhenskaia konsul’tatsiia, 2nd ed. Minsk, 1962.
Konstantinov, V. I. “Nedonashivanie i perenashivanie beremennosti.” In Mnogotomnoe rukovodstvo po akusherstvu i ginekologii, vol. 3, book 1. Moscow, 1964.
Bodiazhina, V. I., A. I. Liubimova, and I. S. Rozovskii. Privychnyi vykidysh. Moscow, 1973.


References in periodicals archive ?
PG[E.sub.2] is positively regulated during preterm delivery; in turn, it is induced by an inflammatory response that promotes the contraction of the uterine smooth muscle [6,14].
There were 229 (66.9%) cases of preterm delivery in group A compared to 44 (14.66%) in group B.
Implementation of the use of antenatal corticosteroids in the late preterm birth period in women at risk for preterm delivery. Am J Obstet Gynecol.
The study group consisted of 622 pregnant women hospitalized due to threatened preterm delivery. The consent to perform the study was obtained from the local bioethics committee.
The women enrolled in this trial were at high risk for preterm delivery based on preterm labor with a cervical dilation of [greater than or equal to] 3 cm or 75% effacement, spontaneous rupture of the membranes, or a planned late preterm delivery by cesarean or induction.
In multivariable analysis (Table 3), male sex [odds ratio (OR)=1.2], primigravid (OR=1.6), hypertension (OR=1.5), preeclampsia (OR=3.1), and diabetes (OR=1.6) were significantly associated with an increased risk of preterm delivery. Women aged between 20 and 35 years had the lowest risk of giving birth to a preterm neonate compared with older or younger women.
Namely, with <10 gr/dl hemoglobin levels, preterm delivery risk was higher in 2nd and 3rd trimester than in the first trimester.
These pregnancies are at 17% higher risk for preterm delivery, and teen mothers are more likely to have a second baby within 2 years of the first birth, making preterm delivery more likely for the second birth as well (19,20).
Of the nine included trials (5,980 women), six (4,193 women) evaluated the effects of omega-3 fatty acids on early preterm delivery. The risk of early preterm delivery was reduced by 58% (RR0.42; 95% CI 0.27-0.66; 12=0%; p=0.0002) and any preterm delivery by 17% (RR 0.83; 95% CI 0.70-0.98; 12=0%; p=0.03) with the intervention, researchers noted.
Frequency and percentage was computed for preterm delivery, booking status and age groups.
Compared to pregnant females with normal CRP levels, those with CRP levels >8mg/L had a greater than two folds higher odds of preterm delivery. The association was stronger for those who experienced spontaneous preterm delivery versus indicated preterm delivery.
Most randomized studies on the use of tocolytics for treatment of threatened preterm labor demonstrate a significant delay in delivery of about 7 days, but no significant reduction in the incidence of preterm delivery and consequential neonatal mortality and morbidity [2,3].