primary deviance


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primary deviance

the initial act of rule breaking. Lemert (1961) used the term ‘primary deviance’ rather than DEVIANCE, but the latter is now in more common use. It has to be understood in relation to SECONDARY DEVIANCE.
References in periodicals archive ?
School resource officers are not trained to recognize and locate acts of primary deviance in juveniles.
Further, parents, as opposed to teachers and peers, are more inclined to react inclusively instead of exclusively (Orcutt, 1973) to primary deviance. Inclusive reactions are manifested in attempts to increase the amount of quality time spent with the juvenile.
Edwin Lemert (1967) developed the primary deviance and secondary deviance typology to explain the process by which individuals are labeled by authority figures.
Primary deviance is an initial act of deviance, before a social institution has labeled a person "deviant" (Lemert, 1967).
The qualitative data for which deviance type could be determined revealed that 65.3 percent (n = 49) of students who were formally charged by the SRO behaved in a way exhibiting primary deviance. It is important to recall that primary deviance involves behaviors that do not rise to the level of formal law enforcement intervention.
The direct relationship suggested that juveniles who committed primary deviance behaviors were charged with more severe offenses.
There was a moderate, direct relationship between offense type and deviance type (r = .378, p = .000), which suggested that juveniles who committed primary deviance behaviors were charged with violent offenses.
Criteria B included cases in which a student's behavior did not warrant a formal criminal charge or in which the behavior would be classified as primary deviance. For a case to be coded "criteria B," the data had to reveal deviant acts that did not produce bodily injury or a theft or destruction of property that results in a monetary loss of less than $25.
The criminalization of juvenile behavior among students could lead students to escalate behaviors indicative of primary deviance to those of secondary deviance.
The process by which an SRO misinterpreted primary deviance as secondary deviance may have affected the number of arrests in the data set and racial disparity within the data.
School resource officers who routinely view primary deviance through a secondary deviance paradigm are at risk of creating a situation in which students may perceive their interaction with law enforcement as being only negative.