A model of the detailed reaction mechanism was created by adding 12 equations for ozone reactions  to the model  developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to represent primary reference fuels
Khan, "Oxidation of Industry Standard Fuels and Blends of Primary Reference Fuels
in the Low Temperature and Negative Temperature Coefficient Regions," M.Sc.
Primary Reference fuel (PRF) blends (Blend description: PRF: Combination of Iso-Octane-n-heptane, digit after PRF:percentage of Iso-Octane, E: Ethanol, last digit: Ethanol percentage in the blend) Fuel blends PRF70 PRF84 Ethanol (%) PRF70-E0 100 -- 0 PRF70-E2 98 -- 2 PRF70-E5 95 -- 5 PRF70-E10 90 -- 10 PRF70-E15 85 -- 15 PRF70-E20 80 -- 20 PRF84-E0 -- 100 0 PRF84-E2 -- 98 2 PRF84-E5 -- 95 5 PRF84-E10 -- 90 10 PRF84-E15 -- 85 15 PRF84-E20 -- 80 20 Table A3.
Blends of iso-octane and n-heptane are referred to as primary reference fuels (PRFs).
L., "Oxidation of automotive primary reference fuels
at elevated pressures," Symp.
Primary CONVERGE sub-models  Spray Models Injection Blob Evaporation Fros sling Collision NTC Break-up KH-RT Combustion and Emissions Solver SAGE Fuel Surrogate n-Heptane for ULSD Primary Reference Fuels
(PRF) for Naphtha Chemical Kinetic Mechanism Chalmers n-Heptane mechanism  for ULSD Liu et al.
A., "Laminar Flame Speed of Primary Reference Fuels
and Reformer Gas Mixtures," Combustion and Flame 139: 239-251, 2004, doi:10.1016/j.combustflame.2004.08.011
In order to assess the performance and emissions of RCCI combustion with primary reference fuels
, which are commonly used chemical surrogates for gasoline and diesel [5,22], the first set of experiments presented here examined the effect of start of injection (SOI) timing and global equivalence ratio ([phi]) for a fixed premixed mass fraction (PRE%) of isooctane (=PRF).
However, the Alkylate fuel does not exhibit a wide boiling range, as it is primarily composed of iso-octane; this is dissimilar from consumer gasolines, and reminiscent of Primary Reference Fuels, but this distillation behavior is assumed to be of minor importance for this study, due to the well-mixed early-injection strategy employed.
[23.] Vuilleumier, D., Selim, H, Dibble, R., and Sarathy, M., "Exploration of Heat Release in a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine with Primary Reference Fuels," SAE Technical Paper 2013-01-2622.
Alternative fuels were less strongly correlated to cetane, and the primary reference fuels tested were slightly shifted in IGD character as compared to the conventional fuels.
A 2004 work by Yates and co-workers studied the connection between the different operating conditions between the IQT and cetane test rating engine, including studying some diesel primary reference fuels (PRFs) in the conventional diesel fuel and higher cetane range (CN 40 and greater) .