The data generated from these measurements were used to plot cumulative

probability amplitude and interevent interval graphs, with each distribution normalized to a maximal value of one.

The wave function is a complex-valued

probability amplitude, and the probabilities for the possible results of measurements made on the system can be derived from it.

1] are the

probability amplitude of global optimal solution, [d.

A (quaternionic)

probability amplitude distribution that is attached to the current granule of a given chain takes care of the fact that the chain in the neighborhood of the current granule stays sufficiently smooth.

In a word, it has the phase sifted

probability amplitude of -1/[N.

3] of a complex

probability amplitude is related to random events in the cylinder space [R.

Technically, the path integral of the action determines the

probability amplitude measured as a complex number whose absolute square determines the probability that weights the random collapse of the wavefunction to an actual path of history.

In the new physics, this quantum probability concept appears, most confusingly, under a variety of names in the literature, including psi, internal extension,

probability amplitude, wave function, guide wave, phase-and-magnitude, and wave- particle duality, to name just a few of the less intimidating ones.

We will based our derivation of the fine structure constant based on Feynman's physical interpretation of the electron's charge as the

probability amplitude that an electron emits (or absorbs) a photon.

Yet, recent work shows that

probability amplitudes in quantum gauge field theories, such as those describing the Standard Model and its extensions, take surprisingly simple forms.

Accordingly, macroscopic objects deal with probabilities rather than

probability amplitudes, namely, a classical description by a density matrix rather than a wave function.

The description of the interaction between laser light and a material sample composed of two-level atoms begin with Maxwell's equations of the electric field and Schrodinger's equations for the

probability amplitudes of the atomic levels.