It is based on concepts from group analysis, interactive (interpersonal) group psychotherapy systems theory, and process sociology
. Waller describes the model of ogroup interactive therapyo as evolving and drawing on fundamental principles of art therapy.
The second is the process sociology of Norbert Elias, especially his work on "the civilizing process," but seen through the eyes of someone with a long-term engagement in critical social theory.
In terms of process sociology, he stresses Elias's overriding concern with the interplay between civilizing and de-civilizing processes, and adds a further critical edge by "incorporating the moral dimensions of Horkheimer and Adorno's writings that found only muted support in Elias's analysis of global civilizing processes" (p.