To determine the authorship of a play it helps to calculate the ratio of proclitic
and enclitic phrases; syllabic suffixes -ed and -eth; pleonastic verbs "do"; grammatical inversions; the disyllabic form of the suffix -ion; and the frequency of rhythmical deviations from the metre used to emphasize the meaning of the situation described in the line ("rhythmical italics").
The others reflect ancient pronominal roots - na- '2S/A' < #na '2SG', ei '1' < #i '1INC' - which also occur in the other paradigms, but as suffixes rather than proclitics
. The origin of na- '1O' is not certain, but it occurs in other subbranches of Kuki-Chin (Section4.3), and thus may be of PKC provenance.
Garrapa deals with a large set of determiners and proclitics
, showing that the former present higher elision rates than the latter, in both elicited and spontaneous speech.
The choice between them is made by subcategorization: the proclitic
mo 'my', for example, is marked to take the lenition form of the noun it governs.
negative particle ne often merges with the verb stem giving forms like nylle or nolde.
It has too few "leaning microphrases" of both the "proclitic
" and "enclitic" types, as these are defined by Marina Tarlinskaja, who has recently studied the prosody of A Lover's Complaint in detail and found it to be at variance with Shakespeare's at any phase of his career.
The first part is formed from the imperfect participle of the future auxiliary verb we and the finite auxiliary CbM, the second part from the particle [partial derivative]a (a proclitic
with conjunctive function) and the present tense of the main verb.
It occurs, in the Rime and in the Divine Comedy as in the work of Dante's contemporaries, in the great majority of word combinations where an initial vowel (or h) is preceded either (1) by a polysyllable with a final accented falling diphthong (an accented followed by an unaccented vowel: -ai, -ea) or with a final accented vowel (either short, as in virtu, or long as in finii, or an elided falling diphthong, as in cantere'); or (2) by any monosyllable ending in a vowel except di (3) (conjunction), the definite article, the proclitic
pronouns (lo, la, li, le, mi, ti, si, ci, vi, ne), and the negative no.
I have excluded all cases where an `apparent' clash is mitigated by the presence of a proclitic
(relative pronouns, unemphatic adverbs, prepositions) and/or enclitic (personal and indefinite pronouns, certain uses of esse, cf.
It appears that the prohibition on dips following Bs ending in a word with non-categorical stress is so extreme that the non-categorically stressed words in the off-verse - proclitic
possessives, as well as adverbs - will also be stressed.
In the first instance the phrase is called proclitic
; the phrase leans, as it were, to the right, as in thy own bright EYES, and in the second case the phrase is called enclitic, it leans to the left, as in Within thy OWN bud ...