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extinct group of apes. Proconsul fossils have been discovered in E Africa. It had a mixture of apeape,
any primate of the superfamily Hominoidea, which includes humans; this article, however, focuses on the nonhuman apes. The small apes, the gibbons and the siamang, and the orangutans, which belong to the great apes, are found in SE Asia.
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 and Old World monkeymonkey,
any of a large and varied group of mammals of the primate order. The term monkey includes all primates that do not belong to the categories human, ape, or prosimian; however, monkeys do have certain common features.
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 characteristics, and lived from 23 to 25 million years ago.


in ancient Rome, governor of a province. He was in sole charge of the army, of justice, and of administration in his province and could not be prosecuted for maladministration until his office expired. In modern times the title has sometimes been used for a colonial governor with far-reaching powers.


See W. M. Jashemski, The Origin and History of the Proconsular and the Propraetorian Imperium to 27 B.C. (1950).

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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



an official state position in ancient Rome. Proconsuls originally carried out military orders outside Rome, but with the formation of the Roman provinces they exercised juridical, administrative, and military authority within the provinces. Beginning in 27 B.C., they governed primarily in the senatorial provinces. Proconsuls were customarily given powers for one year.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
To this reader, it is but one more area in which Professor Lord's conclusion is apt: "Suffice it to say, proconsular leadership, which so plainly offers danger as well as opportunity, is an instrument in need of adult supervision at the imperial center."
So: viceroys and governors were treated with more fawning deference overseas than ever they received at home, where many of them missed the saluting and the curtseying they had taken for granted in their palmy proconsular days.
The tensions between the plantation and the village, manifesting themselves in different guises in the society in which he grew up, predisposed him early in life to take sides everywhere he settled during his long exile, with `The scorned, the rejected/the men hemmed in with the spears/the men of the tattered battalion/that fights "till it dies"', and not with `The princes and prelates and periwigged charioteers/riding triumphantly laurelled/to lap the fat of the years'[7] What was also inescapable was the exposure to the daily round of petty humiliations to which people of colour were subjected throughout the empire, in order to reinforce British proconsular fantasies of racial and class superiority.
The procedures, known only to those in the know, were geared to an insulated code which was based on proconsular tradition more romantic than real, but all the stronger for that.
It is surely wrong--dangerously over-literal--to infer from the suggestion of competition some independent command of the young Tullus: Tullus is a young man, he is the friend of a poet, he has a powerful uncle with a proconsular command, there is the institution of the governor's cohort, there are the close parallels of, for example, Catullus and Memmius, Propertius seems to have the option of participating: it is irresistible to conclude that Tullus is to act as an amicus on L.
Seen as a proconsular spearhead, Shanghailanders might indeed be seen to have demonstrated `sloth and timidity' in their perceived failure to expand British influence in China, but the pattern of British imperialism in China was variegated.
The senior bishop in each province was primate, except in Proconsular Africa, where Carthage was the metropolis of that porvince and of the whole of Africa.
The author of Luke-Acts clearly wishes to associate the birth of Jesus with Augustus, the mention of whose name in connection with the account of the birth of the true Messiah is evocative of many of the themes of the Imperial Cult.(48) In Asia Minor in the proconsular decree of 9 BC Augustus' birthday was celebrated as the beginning of the saeculum aureum ([GREEK TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] ...).
Non-entities of the republican constitution like "proconsular imperium" or "legionary legate" he employs without hesitation (155, 173), and Philippus' bon mot about sending Pompeius to Spain non pro consule sed pro consulibus is rendered with singular ineptness: "not with proconsular imperium, but ...
Youe, Robert Thorne Coryndon: Proconsular imperialism in southern and eastern Africa (Wilfrid Laurier University Press, Waterloo, Ont., 1986), pp.