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extinct group of apes. Proconsul fossils have been discovered in E Africa. It had a mixture of apeape,
any primate of the superfamily Hominoidea, which includes humans; this article, however, focuses on the nonhuman apes. The small apes, the gibbons and the siamang, and the orangutans, which belong to the great apes, are found in SE Asia.
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 and Old World monkeymonkey,
any of a large and varied group of mammals of the primate order. The term monkey includes all primates that do not belong to the categories human, ape, or prosimian; however, monkeys do have certain common features.
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 characteristics, and lived from 23 to 25 million years ago.


in ancient Rome, governor of a province. He was in sole charge of the army, of justice, and of administration in his province and could not be prosecuted for maladministration until his office expired. In modern times the title has sometimes been used for a colonial governor with far-reaching powers.


See W. M. Jashemski, The Origin and History of the Proconsular and the Propraetorian Imperium to 27 B.C. (1950).

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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



an official state position in ancient Rome. Proconsuls originally carried out military orders outside Rome, but with the formation of the Roman provinces they exercised juridical, administrative, and military authority within the provinces. Beginning in 27 B.C., they governed primarily in the senatorial provinces. Proconsuls were customarily given powers for one year.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
After a fine introduction on the Roman origins of proconsulship, Lord chooses eight chronologically ordered case studies--Cuba, the Philippines, Japan, Germany, Vietnam, the Balkans, and two in Iraq.
Future American luminaries like Paul McNutt and Leonard Wood, who had enjoyed a successful proconsulship in Cuba, sought idealistically to facilitate the Philippine transition to commonwealth status on the way to full independence.
THOUGH DOUGLAS MACARTHUR IS OFTEN praised for successfully rebuilding postwar Japan, overseeing land reform and the emancipation of women, Lord argues his proconsulship was more problematic than we think.
On the basis that a war 'against the Lusitani' is taken to have involved Marcus Marius campaigning somewhere in the south west of Iberia, he has been assigned a proconsulship of Hispania Ulterior, and the date 102/1.16 It seems that some essential part of Appian's evidence has, however, been ignored:
Didius promised these Celtiberians, who had been living by theft because of their poverty (very much a repetition of Plutarch's account of Marius' proconsulship of Hispania Ulterior) the lands of the recently defunct Colenda.
(11) For a discussion of Marius's proconsulship, see Evans (note 1) 54-57; cf.
His subsequent proconsulship in the new province of Cilicia may also have not been sufficiently lucrative to pay these off before the Social War began.