competence

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competence

1. Law the state of being legally competent or qualified
2. Embryol the ability of embryonic tissues to react to external conditions in a way that influences subsequent development
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005

competence

(especially ETHNOMETHODOLOGY, and by analogy with linguistic competence -see COMPETENCE AND PERFORMANCE) the fundamental capacities (TACIT KNOWLEDGE, etc.) displayed by social actors as 'S killed’ participants (‘members’) in social contexts. See also SACKS.
Collins Dictionary of Sociology, 3rd ed. © HarperCollins Publishers 2000
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Competence

 

(1) In immunology, the capacity of the human body or that of any warm-blooded animal for specific immune response (mainly antibody formation), which may be achieved by the collaboration of cells of several categories—principally the immunocompetent (antigen-sensitive and antigen-reactive) lymphoid cells. These cells “recognize” antigen, since even before encountering it they bear a special receptor or synthesize small amounts of immunoglobulins.

In rats and mice, before immunization, approximately one in 5,000 lymphoid cells of the spleen and blood binds a particular antigen—that is, the cell is immunocompetent for that antigen. After stimulation by antigen, immunocompetent cells are transformed into either the precursors of plasma cells, which secrete various immunoglobulins, or sensitized lymphocytes, which are the bearers of structural antibodies. Clones of immunocompetent cells, or X cells, apparently originate from the polypotential stem cells, or S cells (the precursors of all hemopoietic and lymphoid cells), probably under the influence of the hormone of the thymus. In the X cells, the genes that control synthesis of the heavy and light chains of immunoglobulins are probably successively activated and repressed upon encountering antigen. The descendants of X cells are capable of synthesizing antibodies according to an already selected program.

REFERENCE

Fridenshtein, A. Ia., and I. L. Chertkov. Kletochnye osnovy immuni-teta. Moscow, 1969.
A. N. MATS
(2) In embryology, the ability of the cells of animal or plant embryos to react to external influence by the formation of appropriate structures or by differentiation. Competence arises during particular stages of the organism’s development and lasts only a limited time. In the absence of the appropriate influences, the unrealized competence is lost and replaced by a new competence that leads to the formation of organs that will develop later.

T. A. DETLAF


Competence

 

the aggregate of powers (rights and obligations) of some body or official person, as established by the law, the bylaws of the particular body, or other statutes. The competence of judicial bodies is ordinarily determined by law. In the USSR the competence of judicial bodies is determined by the Constitution of the USSR, the constitutions of the Union and autonomous republics, the Statute on the Supreme Court of the USSR of 1957, the Statute on Military Tribunals of 1958, USSR and republic legislation on judicial organization, and criminal procedure and civil procedure legislation.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

competence

[′käm·pəd·əns]
(embryology)
The ability of a reacting system to respond to the inductive stimulus during early developmental stages.
(geology)
The ability of the wind to transport solid particles either by rolling, suspension, or saltation (intermittent rolling and suspension); usually expressed in terms of the weight of a single particle.
(hydrology)
The ability of a stream, flowing at a given velocity, to move the largest particles.
(mining engineering)
A property of rock strata which possess sufficient strength to span a mine opening without failure.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
The challenge of maintaining professional competence throughout one's career is compounded by the current knowledge explosion and the rapid rate of technological change.
Barrett underscores both how Mungin's unhappy experience at Katten Muchin did not feature any "racist insults or overtly hostile acts" and the ways in which other lawyers--white lawyers--not directly acquainted with Larry Mungin automatically questioned his professional competence once he filed suit against Katten Muchin in 1994.
Far from being a new detailed biography of Bacon, Mathews's work is, as the title implies, a history of Bacon's moral and professional castigation as well as an eloquent and powerful defence of his professional competence and moral character against his muckrakers.
States that permit the hiring of non-certified part-time coaches will have little or no chance of proving a standard of professional competence in cases where negligence is an issue.
Respondents pointed out that nuisance or frivolous claims are frequently settled by small payments which do not reflect on the professional competence or conduct of the physician, dentist, or other health care practitioner in issue." The Secretary of Health and Human Services "agreed" with these comments by adding an "interpretation" that payment on a medical malpractice case "shall not be construed as creating a presumption that medical malpractice has occurred." This was an empty gesture.
The Standard for Professional Competence of Responders to Hazardous Materials Incidents (NFPA 472) is a voluntary, national consensus standard.(9) The 1992 edition of NFPA 472 includes the following definition and goals for first responders at the awareness tier.
Others, however, have indicated that, although the update model continues to dominate continuing professional education, it is not sufficient to ensure professional competence. Whereas the acquisition of new knowledge does provide the foundation for enhanced practice, it is questionable whether new knowledge alone will guarantee adequate performance (Caplan, 1983).
The PFM meant to enhance professional competence of the officials associated with the field of budgeting, auditing and accounting.
31 at a conference being held as part of the project entitled "Supporting the Establishment of Regional Professional Competence Center in Ganja".
Appreciative of the professional competence of the police team during the exercise, Sindh police chief also directed the concerned authorities that injured cops be provided best of medical care.
Talking to the faculty and cadets COAS emphasized on striving for professional competence, leading the men from front and upholding the virtues of honour, integrity, selfless devotion and rich traditions of Pakistan Army.

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