Measures include substrate quality, instream habitat cover, watershed characteristics, shoreline development, littoral and profundal zone development and quality, depth, and measures of erosion and embeddedness.
The loss of high quality biological conditions among the lakes in the Hoosier National Forest is not a result of littoral habitat loss, but rather a loss of profundal zone due to the loss of depth.
Within their native range in the Dnieper River Delta and Dnieper-Bug Liman, Ukraine, which has no profundal zone, the 2 species have been dominant in different areas of water bodies or in different years in the same water body (Table 3).
2009) as well as differences in the spatial distribution of these two species when they first invade (e.g., animals in the profundal zone are less likely to attach to boats) may have played an important role in the differences seen between the spread of these two species.
The respiration of some animals from the profundal zone of a lake.
Field and laboratory studies on the bottom fauna from the profundal zone of Lake Esrom, Denmark.
Standing water lakes may be large or small, and the life zones are classified as the littoral zone, at the edge of the lake and quite productive; the limnetic zone, a region of open water where phytoplankton are abundant in the upper layers, and the profundal zone
, the region below the limnetic zone where there is no plant life.
No Limnoperma fortunei individuals were found in the reservoir profundal zone, showing that its distribution occurs mainly in shallow regions of the reservoir's margins, the deepness of which varies from 0.3 to 5 m.
Estation Total number of individuals Artificial substrate Dredger margin zone Jul/05 Feb./06 Jul/05 Feb./06 Ibi 1 27 0 0 0 Ibi 2 4 - 0 0 Ibi 3 68 - 141 0 Ibi 4 4 124 0 0 Ibi 5 88 - 0 0 Bar 1 0 - 0 0 Bar 2 1 0 0 0 Bar 3 0 - 0 0 Bar 4 - 0 0 0 Bar 5 1 1 0 0 Estation Total number of individuals Dredger profundal zone Jul/05 Feb./06 Ibi 1 0 0 Ibi 2 0 0 Ibi 3 0 0 Ibi 4 0 0 Ibi 5 0 0 Bar 1 0 0 Bar 2 0 0 Bar 3 0 0 Bar 4 0 0 Bar 5 0 0 Table 3.
 littoral zone  epilimnion  profundal zone
 limnetic zone Environmental Education Foundation of Soil and Water Conservation Districts in New York State.
(1994) suggested that lake morphology influenced the degree of anadromy: anadromous charr were prevalent in shallow lakes, while non-anadromous charr dominated deeper lakes that had large profundal zones
. Lake Hazen, with a maximum recorded depth of 263 m, would be characterized as a deep lake with a large profundal zone
and thus may be more suitable for non-anadromous charr.
Additionally, organisms of the profundal zone
of lakes tend to exhibit highly negative [Delta]13C values, presumably due to fixation of respired C[O.sub.2] (Rau 1980).