prohibition

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prohibition,

legal prevention of the manufacture, transportation, and sale of alcoholic beverages, the extreme of the regulatory liquor lawsliquor laws,
legislation designed to restrict, regulate, or totally abolish the manufacture, sale, and use of alcoholic beverages. The passage of liquor laws has been prompted chiefly by the desire to prevent immoderate use of intoxicants, but sometimes also by the need to raise
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. The modern movement for prohibition had its main growth in the United States and developed largely as a result of the agitation of 19th-century temperance movementstemperance movements,
organized efforts to induce people to abstain—partially or completely—from alcoholic beverages. Such movements occurred in ancient times, but ceased until the wide use of distilled liquors in the modern period resulted in increasing drunkenness.
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. Historians have pointed out that alcohol consumption rose dramatically in the 19th cent., particularly as waves of immigrants moved to America's cities, many opening saloons in their new homes. To some degree the movement to ban alcohol was the result of a social backlash by America's small-town white Protestant population against the urban immigrants and their culture. Prohibition also was often supported by political and social Progressives who advocated woman suffragewoman suffrage,
the right of women to vote. Throughout the latter part of the 19th cent. the issue of women's voting rights was an important phase of feminism. In the United States

It was first seriously proposed in the United States at Seneca Falls, N.Y.
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, child welfare, and other reforms, and prohibition was associated in cities with the good-government movement, which opposed a saloon culture that helped boss-led political corruption to flourish.

A number of states passed temperance laws in the early part of the 19th cent., but most of them were soon repealed. A new wave of state prohibition legislation followed the creation (1846–51) of a law in Maine, the first in the United States. Emphasis shifted from advocacy of temperance to outright demand for government prohibition. Chief of the forces in this new and effective approach was the Anti-Saloon LeagueAnti-Saloon League,
U.S. organization working for prohibition of the sale of alcoholic liquors. Founded in 1893 as the Ohio Anti-Saloon League at Oberlin, Ohio, by representatives of temperance societies and evangelical Protestant churches, it came to wield great political
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. Prohibition had become a national political issue, with a growing Prohibition partyProhibition party,
in U.S. history, minor political party formed (1869) for the legislative prohibition of the manufacture, transportation, and sale of alcoholic beverages.
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 and support from a number of rural, religious, and business groups.

The drive was given impetus in World War I, when conservation policies limited liquor output. After the war national prohibition became the law, the Eighteenth Amendment to the Constitution forbidding the manufacture, sale, import, or export of intoxicating liquors. In spite of the strict Volstead Act (1919) (see under Volstead, Andrew JosephVolstead, Andrew Joseph
, 1860–1947, American legislator, b. Goodhue co., Minn. A lawyer, he held several local offices in Minnesota before serving (1903–23) in the U.S. House of Representatives.
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), law enforcement proved to be very difficult. Smuggling on a large scale (see bootleggingbootlegging,
in the United States, the illegal distribution or production of liquor and other highly taxed goods. First practiced when liquor taxes were high, bootlegging was instrumental in defeating early attempts to regulate the liquor business by taxation.
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) could not be prevented, and the illicit manufacture of liquor sprang up with such rapidity that authorities were unable to suppress it. There followed a period of unparalleled illegal drinking (often of inferior and dangerous beverages) and lawbreaking on a large and organized scale. Meanwhile, speakeasies flourished and provided a new venue for sexually integrated social interaction. In 1933 the Twenty-first Amendment, repealing prohibition, was ratified. A number of states, counties, and other divisions maintained full or partial prohibition under the right of local option. By 1966 no statewide prohibition laws existed. Prohibition laws were passed in Finland, the Scandinavian countries, and most of Canada after World War I, but were repealed, partly because of serious consequences to the countries' commerce with wine-exporting nations.

Bibliography

See Report on the Enforcement of the Prohibition Laws (1931) by the National Commission on Law Observance and Enforcement (Wickersham Commission); C. Warburton, The Economic Results of Prohibition (1932, repr. 1969); H. Asbury, The Great Illusion (1950, repr. 1968); A. Sinclair, Prohibition, the Era of Excess (1962); J. H. Timberlake, Jr., Prohibition and the Progressive Movement (1963); J. Gusfield, Symbolic Crusade (1963); H. Waters, Smugglers of Spirits (1971); J. Kobler, Ardent Spirits (1973); D. Okrent, Last Call (2010); L. McGirr, The War on Alcohol (2015).

Prohibition

resurgence of American puritanism (1920–1933). [Am. Hist.: Allen, 14–15]

Prohibition

(1919–1933) period when selling and consuming liquor was against the law. [Am. Hist.: NCE, 2710]

prohibition

1. (esp in the US) a policy of legally forbidding the manufacture, transportation, sale, or consumption of alcoholic beverages except for medicinal or scientific purposes
2. Law an order of a superior court (in Britain the High Court) forbidding an inferior court to determine a matter outside its jurisdiction

Prohibition

the period (1920--33) when the manufacture, sale, and transportation of intoxicating liquors was banned by constitutional amendment in the US
References in periodicals archive ?
Focusing especially on nuclear weapons since 1945 and now moving on to small arms, with remarkable success they have mobilized public opinion behind new prohibitionary norms, delegitimized weapons, and pressured governments to engage in arms control.
A common feature of these prohibitionary efforts is that they seek to remove weapons from the exclusive grip of a national security discourse and to recast the discourse of weapons as one of environmental, medical, and humanitarian issues.
Why have AP land mines been the target of a new prohibitionary norm?
A major reason why AP land mines (and not other weapons) have been the subject of a prohibitionary campaign in the 1990s is awareness of the shocking carnage that the weapon itself has wreaked on civilian life.
And yet the rapid passage of the 18th Amendment, the struggles over its enforcement, and the continued presence of prohibitionary impulses regarding other substances surely indicate that the victory was incomplete.
To provide an adequate account of the prohibitionary norm against chemical weapons use, one must understand the meanings that have served to constitute and delegitimize this category of weapons.
It is of signal importance that while some authors have privileged individual factors over others for different stages and aspects of the story, none of the major studies has dismissed the prohibitionary norm as irrelevant in the overall explanatory equation.
And just as the nonuse of CW cannot be explained by dismissing the prohibitionary norm as peripheral, neither can it be fully explained as simply an unproblematic product of deterrence.