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an optical device that forms an image of objects on a diffusing surface that serves as a screen. Projectors are classified as diascopic, episcopic, and epidiascopic, depending on the method used to illuminate the object.
In a diascopic projector, or diascope, an image is formed on a screen by light rays that pass through a transparent object, such as a diapositive or a motion-picture film (see Figure 1). Motion-picture projectors are a type of diascope in which the illuminated transparent object—the motion-picture film—is shifted in a specific manner in order to create the effect of motion on the screen. In a slide viewer, a transparent object is also illuminated by light rays passing through it, but the object itself is viewed through an eyepiece. Diascopes are the most numer
ous and varied type of projectors: there are diascopes for the printing of photographs, viewing diapositives, reading microfilms, and processing aerial photographs. In many modern diascopes, the focusing and changing of the diapositives is accomplished automatically, and the projector may be equipped for sound reproduction.
An episcopic projector (see Figure 2) forms an image of an opaque object on a screen by means of light rays that are reflected and scattered from the object. This category includes instruments for copying topographic maps and projecting illustrations.
Epidiascopic projectors use a combination of the diascopic and episcopic systems and can project images of both transparent and opaque objects.
A projector has both mechanical and optical components. The mechanical components provide for proper positioning of objects relative to the optical system, for changing the objects, and for controlling projection times. The optical components perform the projection process and consist of a lighting system with a light source and condenser and a projection lens.
REFERENCESVolosov, D. S., and M. V. Tsivkin. Teoriia i raschet svetoopticheskikh sistem proektsionnykh priborov. Moscow, 1960.
[Ivanov, A. M.] Zarubezhnye liubitel’skie kadroproektory i diaskopy. Moscow, 1968.
A. M. IVANOV