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see MoneraMonera,
taxonomic kingdom that comprises the prokaryotes (bacteria and cyanobacteria). Prokaryotes are single-celled organisms that lack a membrane-bound nucleus and usually lack membrane-bound organelles (mitochondria, chloroplasts; see cell, in biology).
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an organism that does not have a typical cell nucleus and chromosomal apparatus. Prokaryotes include bacteria, blue-green algae, rickettsiae, and mycoplasms.

In the organic world, according to the latest classification system, prokaryotes are classified as a kingdom (Prokariota) or a superkingdom that is comparable to the kingdom or super-kingdom of eukaryotes. In prokaryotes, the physical substrate associated with the transmission and realization of hereditary information consists of a strand of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). The DNA usually has a ringlike shape and is localized more or less in the central part of the organism, which is called the nucleoid; the nucleoid is not separated by a membrane from the cytoplasm. Unlike the DNA in eukaryotes, the DNA in prokaryotes is usually not bound to histones (it does not form nucleohistone) and the functioning of genes is regulated through metabolites. Also, prokaryotes do not have mitochondria and complexly organized flagella.

Prokaryotes play a very important role in the cycle of matter in the biosphere. Blue-green algae were probably the first autotrophic organisms to appear on earth in the course of the evolution of life.


Peshkov, M. A. Tsitologiia bakterii. Moscow-Leningrad, 1955.



(cell and molecular biology)
A primitive nucleus, where the deoxyribonucleic acid-containing region lacks a limiting membrane.
Any cell containing such a nucleus, such as the bacteria and the blue-green algae.
References in periodicals archive ?
Construction of the Prokaryotic Expression Plasmid pET2Sa(+)-PtCacyBP and Expression of the Recombinant Plasmid in Escherichia coli in Response to Salinity Challenges
Construction of the prokaryotic expression vector and protein expression
The five-kingdom system does include prokaryotic and eukaryotic "superkingdoms," and classifies Bacteria and Archaebacterta as subkingdoms (Margulis & Schwarz, 1998).
Prokaryotic inclusions have been reported widely in oysters from the East and Gulf coasts and in mussels from the East and West coasts (e.g., Yevich & Barszcz 1983, Gulka & Chang 1984, Couch 1985, Gauthier et al.
In this research, we identified 18 prokaryotic phyla; the two most prevalent phyla were Firmicutes (42.81-55.29%) and Bacteroidetes (21.26-27.82%).
For prokaryotic gene expression study, the pET26-avimer plasmid DNA was transformed into E.
The structures of other prokaryotic NADP-IDHs have been reported, in which IDHs bind to [NADP.sup.+] in a closed conformation similar to that of EcIDH with [NADP.sup.+], whereas IDH from the hyperthermophile Aeropyrum pernix (ApIDH) could bind to [NADP.sup.+] and isocitrate even though their active sites are open [13, 14].
A geologist in India found "prokaryotic" microfossils that are considered to be 2 billion years old. ( Microfossils are a group of small fossil remains that can only be studied microscopically.
IANS Bengaluru A city-based geologist has discovered 2,000-million-year-old"prokaryotic"microfossils -- considered to be the earliest form of life -- from the Indian subcontinent in the Gwalior basin of the Bundelkhand region near Jhansi.
We deposited sequences in GenBank and performed genome annotation by using the NCBI Prokaryotic Genome Annotation Pipeline (https://www.ncbi.nlm.