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in the Soviet system of government, the organized promotion of leading workers and peasants to positions of leadership in state, economic, cooperative, trade-union, and other administrative and ruling bodies. On the eve of the October Revolution and in the first years of Soviet power, Lenin raised the question of involving the workers in state administration. This task was put on a practical basis in the resolutions of the Seventh, Ninth, Tenth, Eleventh, and Thirteenth Party Congresses, as well as the Decree of the Central Committee of the ACP (Bolshevik) of Mar. 7, 1927, “On the Tasks of the Party in Promoting Workers and Peasants to the State Administrative Bodies.”

The promotion policy directed by the Communist Party played a major role in breaking up the old state system and creating the new Soviet state organization as well as in forming the new Soviet intelligentsia and strengthening the dictatorship of the proletariat. The selection of persons to be promoted was carried out through the Party and trade unions with the participation of broad masses of the working people. Qualified workers and peasants were promoted to leadership positions. They lacked specialized education but had high class consciousness and experience in life, and they had demonstrated organizational abilities in socialist construction. The promotion policy was most highly developed in the period of building the economic foundation of socialism in the USSR (1921-32). Under the promotion system, by the end of the First Five-Year Plan the leadership cadres of the nation had been increased by 800,000-900,000 persons. The promotion policy began to decline as a system in the early 1930’s. It was gradually replaced by the planned training of specialists in various Soviet secondary and advanced educational institutions.


Lenin, V. I. “Ocherednye zadachi Sovetskoi vlasti.” Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed., vol. 36.
Lenin, V. I. “Gosudarstvo rabochikh i partiinaia nedelia.” Ibid., vol. 39.
Sostav Rukovodiashchikh rabotnikov i spetsialistov Soiuza SSR, SSR. Moscow, 1936. Pages 392, 457.
Rabochii klass v upravlenii gosudarstvom (1926-1937 gg.). Moscow,. 1968.
Sovetskaia intelligentsiia (Istoriia formiroaniia i rosta, 1917-1965 gg.). Moscow, 1968.


References in periodicals archive ?
Many of them use paper catalogues to seek and compare promotional events on a weekly basis.Lidl hopes this decision will help save up to 850 tonnes of paper a year.
According to PPAI research, nine in 10 consumers recall the branding on promotional products they have received which is 67 percent higher than broadcast advertising and 78 percent higher than online, print and mobile advertising.
Promotional effects, even if present and strong, are not a type of market failure requiring a legislative or regulatory fix."
"If a consumer is looking at several products side-by-side, the one with the promotional offer will move off the store shelves faster than the products without," explains Hensley.
Where shifts in private brand promotional support do occur is at the category level.
In the second account, Davis offers a more critical view of promotional culture by suggesting that it was driven by ex-wartime propagandists who employed manipulative practices to dupe consumers.
"We believe that extensive promotional merchandise such as promotional sweets, business gifts, writing tools, advertising services and range of advertising ideas will be evaluated positively in Polish market.
If the offender is a policeman taking the promotional exam, the offender may face dismissal from service.
The established practice at most pharmaceutical companies, although it is different at each organization, has the same goal: to ensure each promotional item developed by marketing teams is in congruence with the U.S.
"CFPB supervisory experience has observed that some card issuers do not adequately convey in their marketing materials that a consumer who accepts such a promotional offer will lose his grace period on new purchases if he does not pay the entire statement balance, including the total amount subject to the promotional APR, by the payment due date," said a CFPB bulletin.
Commercial director of UK promotional merchandise company Pro-Ad, Loren Nardini will now promote the association and its services by attending regional and national meetings.
Following recent data demonstrating that the majority of unwanted promotional messages come from international companies located in GCC countries, and acting in coordination with etisalat and du, the TRA introduced a monitoring device able to identify and block advertising messages coming from outside the UAE.

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