The determination of the amount of propagated error
is an essential step for any experimentally determined quantity.
In order to estimate the propagated error
in the data on the geopotential coefficients, Pavlis and Saleh (2004) used the discredited integral formulas as a functional relation between the obtained data (e.g.
Attacking a widely propagated error
, Woods insists that the three-fifths clause in the Constitution wasn't a slur aimed at blacks but a device crafted to hold down the power of the slave states by watering down its population claims.
But this assumption leads to propagated errors
in computing real good coordinates for our purpose.
I find the log exceedingly helpful there, as when I see many propagated errors
, and an incorrect level of variables and/or observations, I immediately know that extra data or unincluded factor levels were popping up.