N-Alkyl bromide (Alfa Aesar, [greater than or equal to] 99%, GC), diethanol amine (Alfa Aesar, [greater than or equal to] 99%, GC), and propargyl bromide (Alfa Aesar, [greater than or equal to] 99%, GC) were used without further purification.
Then, compound 1a (3.23 g, 0.02 mol) was added to 100 mL solution of propargyl bromide (3.1 g, 0.026 mol) in ethanol.
N-Alkylation of diethanolamine with commercially available alkyl bromide produced the corresponding intermediates (1a-1d); with addition of propargyl bromide, it produced the required quaternary surfactants (2a-2d) with high yield.
Then propargyl bromide
500 mg (4.37 mmol) was added and reaction mixture was stirred at 60 C till the completion of reaction.
Atmospheric volatilization of methyl bromide, 1,3-dichloropropene, and propargyl bromide
through two plastic films: Transfer coefficient and temperature effect.
The treatments-1,3-dichforopropene + chloropicrin (578 kg/ha shank injected), iodomethane + chloropicrin (515 kg/ha shank injected or 448 kg/ha drip applied) and propargyl bromide
(221 kg/ha shank injected or 207 kg/ha drip applied)--controlled root-knot and citrus nematodes equal to methyl bromide (507 kg/ha shank injected) during an eight-year evaluation period.
Propargyl bromide is among the chemicals that might be used in place of methyl bromide.
"Even though propargyl bromide is not new," says ARS agricultural engineer Thomas J.
The EPA lists propargyl bromide
and sodium azide as alternatives under development, but these are not yet registered for use in forest nurseries.
Another chemical that has attracted the committee's interest is propargyl bromide
, a fumigant that kills nematodes, weeds, and soil-dwelling fungi.
"We've also seen very promising results with a chemical called propargyl bromide," says Ajwa.
Those figures may be particularly valuable if the manufacturers of candidate compounds, such as methyl iodide or propargyl bromide, seek U.S.