the prophyll does not develop (Meert & Goetghebeur, 1979; Kukkonen,
branches also arise in the axils of prophylls (Fig.
paraclades (1-8) originate from the axillary bud of the prophylls (Fig.
or not the flowers; f) rachilla persistent or deciduous at maturity; g) type of rachilla disarticulation at maturity (not disarticulating, disarticulating above the prophyll, disarticulating below the prophyll, shattering with points of abscission at the base of each fruit or not shattering); h) rachilla with wings or wingless, i) wings deciduous or persistent; j) glumes spirally or distichously disposed; and k) glumes persistent or deciduous (completely, incompletely, individually or collectively deciduous).
The prophylls can be well developed, but they are often reduced or even absent.
In Andropogoneae these shoots branch from the axillary buds of the prophylls and of their leaves (Fig.
3E-H); (4) increasing branching degree of enrichment axes by development of branches of successive order from the axillary buds of the prophylls and bracts of these axes (Fig.
This spikelet prophyll
or proximal glume is always positioned between the rachilla and the relative main axis (Kukkonen, 1994); it is often two-keeled, and always empty (except for the Dulichieae and Cariceae).
sessile bisexual spikes, usually distigmatic flowers, no prophylls, setaceous bracts); and (4) Psyllophora (Degl.
Vigneastra (Reznicek, 1990), whose highly compound inflorescences could have generated subgenera Carex or Vignea by a series of simple losses (Carex = loss of inflorescence prophylls, specialization in sex of spikes, Vignea = loss of one stigma, prophylls, peduncles; e.
Bracts in each partial florescence and prophylls may be persistents or deciduous.
As we understand it, in many Amaranthaceae genera, partial florescences are cymes and, as such, lateral flowers are axillary products of the prophylls (Troll, 1964).