proportional representation


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proportional representation:

see representationrepresentation,
in government, the term used to designate the means by which a whole population may participate in governing through the device of having a much smaller number of people act on their behalf.
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Proportional Representation

 

in bourgeois electoral law, a means of determining the results of a vote, according to which the distribution of seats among parties that have nominated candidates for a representative body conforms with the number of votes received. Under proportional representation large electoral districts are established in which each party nominates its own slate of candidates and the voter casts his vote for a party’s slate. To determine the results of the vote, an electoral yardstick (or quota) is set, that is, a minimum number of votes needed to obtain one seat. The seats within a party’s slate are generally distributed in conformity with the order in which the candidates are listed; such a slate is termed a connected slate.

Proportional representation exists in Italy, Belgium, Finland, and elsewhere. In a number of countries, including Australia and India, a form of proportional representation called preferential voting is used in presidential elections.

In the bourgeois multiparty system, proportional representation is the most democratic way of determining the results of a vote, since the bodies elected in this manner are more representative in character. The Communist and workers’ parties of capitalist states make demands for proportional representation, but bourgeois states are reluctant to accept this, since they fear an increase in the number of workers’ representatives in elected bodies. Most bourgeois states use the majority system of representation.

proportional representation

Politics representation of parties in an elective body in proportion to the votes they win
References in periodicals archive ?
But let's be a little more specific about the various political consequences that would follow if a city or town adopted proportional representation.
And last year, after Thernstrom's book went to press, the Supreme Court agreed to hear challenges to party-based gerrymandering, which can be adjudicated only by applying a proportional representation standard.
Some of the protesters claimed that had proportional representation been used at recent municipal elections the outcome would have been very different.
The Washington chapter of Citizens for Proportional Representation is monitoring theses bills.
A counterproposal was put forward by the Future Movement and supported by its Christian ally, the Lebanese Forces, which calls for electing 68 lawmakers on the basis of proportional representation and 60 lawmakers according to the winner-takes-all system.
Currently under Japan's electoral system, 300 of the lower house's 480 seats are allotted to nationwide single-seat constituencies and 180 through proportional representation in 11 regional blocks.
Aoun criticized those opposed to his demands for proportional representation which would give his party, the Free Patriotic Movement, half of the Christian ministries in government.
Under proportional representation, therefore, a party or candidate need not come in first to win a seat.
After Berri's move, Hezbollah Secretary-General Sayyed Hasan Nasrallah proposed adopting proportional representation with Lebanon as a single district.
In the poll, however, a total of 56 percent said they had not yet decided on who to vote for in the single-seat constituency contests and 48 percent said they remained undecided on which party to vote for in the proportional representation regional blocks, where 180 lower house seats will be determined.
But then Scotland is following the recommendation of the Richard Commission to bring proportional representation to local government - something the Labour council strongholds in Wales would resist to the death
Moreover, it's consistent with the policy that was initiated at the last shareholders meeting when we reduced the number of management directors and, thus, increased the proportional representation of the non-management directors.

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