# proposition

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Related to propositional: propositional logic

## proposition

1. Philosophy
a. the content of a sentence that affirms or denies something and is capable of being true or false
b. the meaning of such a sentence: I am warm always expresses the same proposition whoever the speaker is
2. Maths a statement or theorem, usually containing its proof
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

## Proposition

a declarative sentence which with its content (sense) is regarded as either true or false. Propositions thus conceived are usually contrasted to interrogative and imperative sentences and in general to any sentence in which an evaluation of truth is impossible. Examples of propositions are “Moscow is the capital,” “Five is less than three and greater than two,” and “All engineers have studied the resistance of materials.” Of these propositions, the first and third are true and the second is false. “Truth” and “falseness” are called truth values of a proposition (or values of its truthfulness). By definition, any proposition has grammatical and logical aspects. The grammatical aspect is expressed by a declarative proposition (simple or complex), and the logical aspect is expressed by its meaning and truth value. Propositions that vary as grammatical sentences (for example, belonging to different languages) can express one and the same meaning. This meaning, common to grammatically differing propositions, is the content or sense of a proposition; the meaning is often called a judgment. However, the terminology relating to propositions is not fixed, and the terms “proposition,” “sentence,” and “judgment” are sometimes used synonymously, or meanings other than those described above are attributed to these terms.

Various methods of using propositions are distinguished in linguistic practice. A proposition is said to be used affirmatively if it is used to affirm the truth of the thought it expresses. Affirmative usage of a proposition is most frequent; people expressing their own thoughts usually claim that they are true. (In logic, in order to distinguish a proposition as a statement which can be either true or false from one which is an affirmation of truth, the special sign ǀ— is applied in certain cases; ǀ— A means affirmation of the proposition A.)

In the case when the truth of a proposition’s content is not affirmed, there is nonaffirmative usage of a proposition (for example, in classroom dictation propositions are used nonaffirmatively). One of the methods of a proposition’s nonaffirmative usage is indirect usage. Its only purpose is transmitting content, rather than affirming that the sense is true. For example, the proposition “The orbits of planets have a circular form” is used thus as part of the proposition “Kepler thought that the orbits of planets have a circular form.” In affirming the latter, we do not at all mean to say that it is true that the orbits of planets have a circular form; we desire to communicate the proposition that Kepler affirmed, and this proposition in itself may be either true or false (in this instance, it is false). Reference to (citation of) propositions should be distinguished from their usage.

In logic propositions are used mainly in the application of logical calculations to any concrete field of objects. Variable propositions and forms (declarative forms) of propositions figure essentially in the formulas of so-called pure logical calculations. A variable proposition is not a proposition in the true sense; it is a variable of the proposition—that is, a variable for which concrete (“constant”) propositions (of a given type) or their names can be substituted. The form of a proposition is an expression containing the variables (possibly, in particular, the variables for the proposition) that become a proposition after the substitution of certain values—from appropriate admissible areas of values—instead of all variables entering into it. For example, the formula x + y > 2 is the form of a proposition: x and y are variables which acquire value from the field of real numbers; if x = 1 and y = 2, this formula becomes the true proposition 1 + 2 > 2.

### REFERENCES

Tarski, A. Vvedenie v logiku i metodoligiiu deduktivnykh nauk. Moscow, 1948. (Translated from English.)
Church, A. Vvedenie v matematicheskuiu logiku, vol. 1. Moscow, 1960. (Translated from English.)

B. V. BIRIUKOV

In linguistics, a proposition is a unity of language communication. The segmentation of linguistic material by intonation and content leads to the communication units of speech sometimes called phrases. The segmentation of linguistic material by formal characteristics results in the syntactic units of language frequently called sentences. (Other correlative pairs of terms exist.) The sentence and the phrase are units of the same level (communicative), but they pertain to different aspects of linguistic material. The proposition as a real unit of intercourse is a synthesis of the correlative units of language and speech—sentences and phrases. In modern linguistics there are other interpretations of the concept of “proposition.”

### REFERENCES

Vannikov, IU. V. “Vyskazyvanie kak sinteticheskaia edinitsa.” In Voprosy grammatiki i slovoobrazovaniia. Moscow, 1968.
Hausenblas, K. “On the Characterization and Classification of Discourses.” Travaux linguistiques de Prague, 1966, no. 1.

IU. V. VANNIKOV

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

## proposition

[‚präp·ə′zish·ən]
(mathematics)
Any problem or theorem.
A statement that makes an assertion that is either false or true or has been designated as false or true.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

## proposition

(logic)
A statement in propositional logic which may be either true or false. Each proposition is typically represented by a letter in a formula such as "p => q", meaning proposition p implies proposition q.
References in periodicals archive ?
Only by occluding its origins in clouds and sundriven transmutations of the earth, and its openness to life's strange relations, can human language affirm these origins, only in the propositional (myth) a sense of the nonpropositional (myth before myth) that must have given birth to it, can be conceived.
For each column of the manners table, we focus on the rows that are set to '1' and consider corresponding rows in the context table to evaluate propositional functions.
This family relies on a translation of propositional logic programs into logic formulas so that models of the resulting formula are in one-to-one correspondence with the answer sets of the input program.
3.12 The sign through which we express the thought I call the propositional sign.
But why the understanding is more valuable than propositional knowledge?
De Houwer (2007) pointed out that the different effects of EC can be due to different processes, for example, the automatic formation of associations in memory or propositional formation.
49-50) new illlocutionary forces can be formed out of the old ones by adding propositional content preparatory or sincerity conditions.
If a propositional formula, P, has the atoms [A.sub.1], ..., [A.sub.n] then an Interpretation of P, I, is an assignment of truth values to [A.sub.1], ..., [A.sub.n] in which every [A.sub.i] is assigned either T (True) or F (False), but not both.
procedures offer a qualitatively distinct estimate of the subjective validity of propositional evaluations of the attitude object (e.g., Gawronski & Bodenhausen, 2006; Rydell, McConnell, Mackie, & Strain, 2006).
But if someone claimed that there was a class of beings who literally had hopes, fears, and beliefs, and who made statements, assertions, and commands, all with their various logical features, but who did not have propositional content, then such a person doesn't know what he's talking about or else is simply refusing to adopt a notation, for the claim that there are propositional contents isn't in any way an additional empirical claim.

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