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(control systems)
A device that senses the position of an arm or other computer-controlled articulated mechanism of a robot and provides feedback signals.
A sense receptor that signals spatial position and movements of the body and its members, as well as muscular tension.



a specialized sensory nerve terminal that is located in the musculoskeletal system, which includes skeletal muscles, tendons, and ligaments. Proprioceptors react to the contraction and tension or the relaxation and stretching of muscles. They belong to the group of mechanoreceptors.

In addition to free nerve terminals, proprioceptors include the following: muscle spindles, which consist of several thin and intrafusal muscle fibers entwined by spiral-like nerve terminals; Golgi’s corpuscles, which are found in tendons; and Pacini’s corpuscles, which are concentrated in the fascia, tendons, and ligaments. The extent to which a spindle contracts is regulated by the gamma motor system (gamma efferent nerve fibers)—processes of special motor neurons of the spinal cord. Muscle spindles are excited by a lengthening of fibers, while Golgi’s corpuscles, or tendon organs, are excited by the contraction of fibers. Impulses from spindles that reach the central nervous system facilitate the contraction of a particular muscle and inhibit the contraction of its antagonist. Impulses from tendon proprioceptors exert the opposite effect. Signals on the movement of body parts originate in proprioceptors; these signals are the main regulators of information that arrives from other sensory organs.

References in periodicals archive ?
Asynchronous stroking diminishes the effect or even eliminates the proprioceptive illusion as a consequence of the time delay between feeling and seeing the touch (Shimada, Suzuki, Yoda, & Hayashi, 2014).
While some proprioceptive technologies require surgically implanted electrodes, the Rice Haptic Rocker has a simple, noninvasive user interface--a rotating arm that brushes a soft rubber pad over the skin of the arm.
The pretreatment and postreatment tenth day and first month evaluations of the wrist proprioceptive sense of the groups presented a significant difference.
Inputs from sensory organs, including visual, auditory, tactile, olfactory, proprioceptive, and vestibular, as well as from memory, emotion, and other cognitive factors, are all capable of modulating the outputs of the cortical body matrix.
In a series of 19 patients having proprioceptive loss in leprous neuropathy described by Khadilkar et al.
Most researches have revealed that proprioceptive exercises are those that should be the focus of athletes' recovery from injuries of the knee joint.
d), yet the authors did not indicate how being static at a computer will provide individuals with the proprioceptive input needed to feel comfortable in unfamiliar environments.
Evaluation of position sense in the joint and kinesthesia alone do not provide adequate information on functioning of proprioceptive reflexes that seem to be responsible for the joint functional stability.
Similarly, because of the anticipation that similar demands would be placed on the non-dominant and dominant ankles in sedentary individuals, we hypothesized that muscle latency and proprioceptive ability also would not be different between the limbs in sedentary individuals.
Patients in group I were subjected to Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation therapy while those in group II were treated by passive range of motion exercises only.
30) Taken together these data convincingly demonstrate integration of vestibular, visual and proprioceptive (particularly from the neck) inputs to maintain postural balance.