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(control systems)
A device that senses the position of an arm or other computer-controlled articulated mechanism of a robot and provides feedback signals.
A sense receptor that signals spatial position and movements of the body and its members, as well as muscular tension.



a specialized sensory nerve terminal that is located in the musculoskeletal system, which includes skeletal muscles, tendons, and ligaments. Proprioceptors react to the contraction and tension or the relaxation and stretching of muscles. They belong to the group of mechanoreceptors.

In addition to free nerve terminals, proprioceptors include the following: muscle spindles, which consist of several thin and intrafusal muscle fibers entwined by spiral-like nerve terminals; Golgi’s corpuscles, which are found in tendons; and Pacini’s corpuscles, which are concentrated in the fascia, tendons, and ligaments. The extent to which a spindle contracts is regulated by the gamma motor system (gamma efferent nerve fibers)—processes of special motor neurons of the spinal cord. Muscle spindles are excited by a lengthening of fibers, while Golgi’s corpuscles, or tendon organs, are excited by the contraction of fibers. Impulses from spindles that reach the central nervous system facilitate the contraction of a particular muscle and inhibit the contraction of its antagonist. Impulses from tendon proprioceptors exert the opposite effect. Signals on the movement of body parts originate in proprioceptors; these signals are the main regulators of information that arrives from other sensory organs.

References in periodicals archive ?
Some doubts that emerged from the study concerned electromyographical (RMS values of TA and PL) interpretation of proprioceptive function of tape; the RMS and COP correlation obtained allowed us to suppose that Kinesio Taping[R] would improve monopodalic postural control (i.
Therefore, the aim of this investigation was to explore the differences in muscle latency and proprioceptive ability between the non-dominant and dominant ankles of healthy sedentary individuals.
15), who found that Kt did not improve proprioceptive measurements.
Acute effects of static and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching on muscle strength and power output.
2001) A multi-station proprioceptive exercise program in patients with ankle instability.
Neurologic examination revealed severe hind limb proprioceptive deficits, paraparesis, decreased withdrawal reflex, and decreased-to-absent patellar reflexes, although response to deep pain was present.
The information from the ears, along with visual and proprioceptive information, forms the major input to the balance system, as depicted in Fig.
Apple also recommends core and hip conditioning for strengthening the turnout muscles, as well as proprioceptive exercises (see www.
It could be advocated that assessment and management of abnormal cervical somatosensory input and sensorimotor control in neck pain patients is an integral a part of the rehabilitative process as it is in lower limb proprioceptive retraining following an ankle or knee injury (Treleaven 2008).
In essence the feet are not communicating effectively with the brain because of compression of proprioceptive fibers," Dr.
Ask your veterinarian to show you how to check her proprioceptive reflex, as that is the first spinal reflex to go when the spine is injured.
The constellation of lower extremity-predominant spasticity and proprioceptive defects suggested an abnormality in the region of the cervical spinal cord.