Active TED lasts for up to three years and is characterized by inflammation and tissue expansion behind the eye.6,1 As TED progresses, it causes serious damage - including proptosis
(eye bulging), strabismus (misalignment of the eyes), and diplopia (double vision) - and in some cases can lead to blindness.2,7 TED has only been shown to respond to pharmacotherapy while the disease is active and inflammation is ongoing.8 Currently, patients must live with active TED until the disease becomes inactive - often left with permanent and sight-impairing consequences.6,1
The left eye was hyperemic and had alternating exotropia with proptosis
. There was a motility restriction of the left eye towards the right side.
Also associated signs and symptoms should not be ignored (In this case proptosis
, chemosis and eye pain) which might not fit into initial diagnosis (Here oculomotor palsy) and hence should make us think about alternative diagnostic possibility (here orbital pseudotumour).
There were no signs of brain edema, but proptosis
, ptosis and leakage of the cerebrospinal fluid from conjunctival lesion were observed.
Three cases of DCR and two cases of proptosis
resulted in persistence of symptoms and were subjected to revision surgery.
The case was diagnosed as SGS because of dolichocephaly, large anteriorfontanel, hypertelorism, ocular proptosis
, posteriorly located, low-set ears, microretrognatia, pectus carinatum, umbilical hernia and hydrocephalus.
Over the subsequent 7 hours while asleep, the patient developed rapidly progressive painless proptosis
. When awoken in the morning, the patient had no light perception visual acuity on the right, with an IOP of 50.
The protrusion of eyeballs that later resulted in proptosis
in a calf infected with Theileria annulata was also reported by Sudan et al.
We describe the case of a 44-year-old woman with bilateral maxillary sinus mucoceles who presented clinically with left malar pain, right-sided swelling, and proptosis
of the right eye.
There was also a mild right sided proptosis
. Fundus examination was normal.
Orbital invasion can lead to vision loss, ophthalmoplegia, and proptosis
. In this study, we present the clinical features of a 62-year-old female patient with olfactory neuroblastoma showing orbital invasion.