antibody

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antibody,

protein produced by the immune system (see immunityimmunity,
ability of an organism to resist disease by identifying and destroying foreign substances or organisms. Although all animals have some immune capabilities, little is known about nonmammalian immunity.
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) in response to the presence in the body of antigens: foreign proteins or polysaccharides such as bacteria, bacterial toxinstoxin,
poison produced by living organisms. Toxins are classified as either exotoxins or endotoxins. Exotoxins are a diverse group of soluble proteins released into the surrounding tissue by living bacterial cells. Exotoxins have specific reaction sites in the host; e.g.
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, viruses, or other cells or proteins. Such antigens are capable of inflicting damage by chemically combining with natural substances in the body and disrupting the body's processes. The body contains hundreds of thousands of different white blood cells called B lymphocytes, each capable of producing one type of antibody and each bearing sites on its membrane that will bind with a specific antigen. When such a binding occurs, it triggers the B lymphocyte to reproduce itself, forming a cloneclone,
group of organisms, all of which are descended from a single individual through asexual reproduction, as in a pure cell culture of bacteria. Except for changes in the hereditary material that come about by mutation, all members of a clone are genetically identical.
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 that manufactures vast amounts of its antibody.

The antibody molecule is composed of four polypeptide chains (see peptidepeptide,
organic compound composed of amino acids linked together chemically by peptide bonds. The peptide bond always involves a single covalent link between the α-carboxyl (oxygen-bearing carbon) of one amino acid and the amino nitrogen of a second amino acid.
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)—two identical light chains and two identical heavy chains—joined by disulfide bridges. The light chains have a variable portion that is different in each type of antibody and is the active portion of the molecule that binds with the specific antigen. Antibodies combine with some antigens, such as bacterial toxins, and neutralize their effect; they remove other substances from circulation in body fluids; they bind certain antigens together, a process known as agglutination; and they activate complement, blood serum proteins that cause the destruction of invading cells.

See also monoclonal antibodymonoclonal antibody,
an antibody that is mass produced in the laboratory from a single clone and that recognizes only one antigen. Monoclonal antibodies are typically made by fusing a normally short-lived, antibody-producing B cell (see immunity) to a fast-growing cell, such as
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.

Antibody

A protein found principally in blood serum and characterized by a specific reactivity with the corresponding antigen. Antibodies are important in resistance against disease, in allergy, and in blood transfusions, and can be utilized in laboratory tests for the detection of antigens or the estimation of immune status.

Antibodies are normally absent at birth unless derived passively from the mother through the placenta or colostrum. In time, certain antibodies appear in response to environmental antigens. Antibodies are also induced by artificial immunization with vaccines or following natural infections. The resulting antibody level declines over a period of months, but rapidly increases following renewed contact with specific antigen, even after a lapse of years. This is known as an anamnestic or booster response. See Allergy, Blood groups, Hypersensitivity, Isoantigen, Vaccination

Antibody reactivity results in precipitation of soluble antigens, agglutination of particulate antigens, increased phagocytosis of bacteria, neutralization of toxins, and dissolution of bacterial or other cells specifically sensitive to their action; the antibodies so revealed are termed precipitins, agglutinins, opsonins, antitoxins, and lysins. One antibody may give many such reactions, depending on conditions, so these classifications are not unique or exclusive.

Three principal groups (IgG, IgM, IgA) and two minor groups (IgD, IgE) of antibodies are recognized. These all form part of the wider classification of immunoglobulins. Antibody diversity is generated by amino acid substitutions that result in unique antigen-binding structures. See Cellular Immunology, Immunoglobulin

The development of the technology for producing monoclonal antibodies, which can bind to specific sites on target antigens, revolutionized the uses of antibodies in biology and medicine. Unfortunately, almost all monoclonal antibodies originate in mice, and the murine immunoglobulin serves as an antigen, frequently acting immunogenic in human recipients. See Antigen, Monoclonal antibodies

antibody

[′an·tə‚bäd·ē]
(immunology)
A protein, found principally in blood serum, originating either normally or in response to an antigen and characterized by a specific reactivity with its complementary antigen. Also known as immune body.

antibody

any of various proteins produced in the blood in response to the presence of an antigen. By becoming attached to antigens on infectious organisms antibodies can render them harmless or cause them to be destroyed
References in periodicals archive ?
A significant number of ALL patients developed protective antibody titer after the 1st vaccine dose compared to AML patients; thereafter, both groups behaved similarly.
But this maternal protection can also keep many vaccines from triggering a protective antibody response by the newborn's own immune system.
Dynavax has previously reported that the primary endpoint analysis of a randomized, double-blind Phase 2/3 trial in older adults showed statistically significant superiority in protective antibody response and robustness of protective effect after three vaccinations compared to Engerix-B.
You receive injections of increasing concentrations of the allergen to which you're sensitive, which reduces the amount of antibodies in your blood, prompting your body to make a different protective antibody.
The team's findings could also lead to the development of a vaccine capable of stimulating the body's immune system to produce the protective antibody, although this would require a much longer research period, Lopalco was quoted as saying.
A month after vaccination, nearly 85per cent in the aerosol group had developed protective antibody levels, compared with between 63 and 79per cent who received injections.
Commercially available immunoassays for total anti-HAV antibodies are relatively insensitive, however, and may not detect the protective antibody responses present after a single dose of inactivated HAV vaccine [12].
Injected vaccines place antigens directly in the bloodstream, which becomes the site of most of the protective antibody and cellular immune response.
Although diphtheria has virtually disappeared from this country, its reemergence in the former Soviet Union has heightened concerns about the low protective antibody levels among American adults.
These injections reduce the amount of IgE antibodies in the blood and cause the body to make a protective antibody called IgG.
The goal of the project is to create carbohydrate immunogens capable of stimulating protective antibody responses to HIV.
These vaccines, which were developed at MSKCC and are exclusively licensed to MabVax, are administered as adjuvant therapies - given after surgery and/or completion of chemotherapy -- and elicit a protective antibody response.