hermaphroditism in Paralabrax maculatofasciatus (Pisces: Serranidae).
Previous research revealed that protogynous
sex change in spotties follows social cues: the removal of the dominant male from a social group leads to the sex change of the dominant female in the group (unpublished).
The majority of protogynous
(female-to-male sex-change) species, including the study species, exhibit a size-based social dominance hierarchy whereby dominant individuals influence the behavior of subordinate individuals (Cole 1984; Ross 1990).
Terminal phase males stimulate ovarian function and inhibit sex change in the protogynous
wrasse Thalassoma duperrey.
During this scented first day of flowering, the protogynous
flowers attract beetles belonging to the Nitidulidae (Colopterus spp.) and Staphylinidae.
The larger species form breeding aggregations, and most species are protogynous
There is great reproductive plasticity (gonochoristic, protogynous
, protandry, and hermaphroditic) among fishes and thus a large variation in steroidal influences on sex characteristics.
Both conditions are frequent in tropical American palms, such as in Bactridinae, with Aiphanes being protandrous (Listabarth, 1992b), while Acrocomia, Astrocaryum, Bactris and Desmoncus are protogynous
(Scariot & Lleras, 1991; Listabarth, 1992b; Henderson et al., 2000).
Many self-compatible species have special adaptations to prevent the automatic self-pollination, such as species herkogamous, protandrous and protogynous
. However, in many other species not there is a morphological or temporal explicit barriers to prevent the transfer of pollen grains of the same flower, as observed in several species of Fabaceae (ARROYO, 1981; NOGUEIRA; ARRUDA, 2006) as well as in species of families not related (SILVA; PINHEIRO, 2009).
Archegoniate individuals were the first to develop (protogynous
) within a population and did so within an asynchronous manner.
Inflorescence branching to one order, interfoliar, erect, arching or pendulous, protogynous
; peduncle usually elongated, circular to oval in cross section, densely covered in indument, often heavily armed with spines; prophyll short, bicarinate, fibrous, unarmed or armed with small spines or bristles, hidden in the leaf bases; peduncular bract much exceeding the prophyll, spindle-shaped, often rostrate, splitting longitudinally along the abaxial face, persistent or eroding, usually densely tomentose, heavily armed with spines or unarmed; rachis shorter than the peduncle bearing spirally arranged rachillae, each sustented by a narrow triangular bract; rachillae ca.