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Related to Protogyny: protandry


A condition in hermaphroditic or dioecious organisms in which the female reproductive structures mature before the male structures.



a state in which the stigmata of the pistils ripen earlier than the pollen of a plant. Protogyny is an adaptation to cross-pollination (seeDICHOGAMY and ).

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996 for the regression equation indicated that there was no evidence for protandry or protogyny.
However, the sex allocation pattern of various populations of spotted sand bass appear to vary from functional gonochorism to strict protogyny (Hovey and Allen 2000; Hovey et al.
The empirical evidence accumulated so far suggests that in andro- and gynomonoecious plants, early flowers are more female-biased than late flowers in protandrous species, whereas the reverse is true with protogyny (reviewed in Pellmyr 1987), although some exceptions exist (see Anderson and Symon 1989).
2005, 2009), focusing on populations within the southern Arabian Gulf, and Liu and Sadovy de Mitcheson (2009), through a controlled experiment of hatchery-reared juvenile orange-spotted grouper, confirmed diandric protogyny.
Conditions of protandry or protogyny will favor maximum kernel number in some hybrids more than others because of different silk emergence-senescence patterns, and different times when pollen intensity and shed duration become limiting to grain yield.
It is also not essential to monitor calyces or colonies over time, although that is certainly the best way to observe the timing of maturation and to detect tendencies toward protandry or protogyny.
Protogyny (stigma maturation occurring before anther dehiscence) and protandry (stigma maturation after anther dehiscence) can be considered as constraints around which the optimal floral longevity is selected, implying that the flower must be maintained at least as long as required for the delayed sexual function to commence.
However, protogyny does not automatically imply elevated vulnerability to fishing if the population is able to compensate for reduced male survival (e.
Pearl millet is a hermaphroditic species with strong protogyny and cross pollination of up to 82% (Burton, 1974).
Protandry was found mainly among members of Asteraceae, Campanulaceae, and Gunneraceae, with protogyny among the genera Drimys, Eryngium, Loctoris, Myrceugenia, and Plantago.
Intersexuality among crustaceans has been documented mainly in species that exhibit either protandry (change of sex from male to female) or protogyny (change of sex from female to male).