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protonation(prō`tənā'shən), in chemistry, addition of a protonproton,
elementary particle having a single positive electrical charge and constituting the nucleus of the ordinary hydrogen atom. The positive charge of the nucleus of any atom is due to its protons.
..... Click the link for more information. to an atom, molecule, or ion. The proton is the nucleus of the hydrogenhydrogen
[Gr.,=water forming], gaseous chemical element; symbol H; at. no. 1; interval in which at. wt. ranges 1.00784–1.00811; m.p. −259.14°C;; b.p. −252.87°C;; density 0.08988 grams per liter at STP; valence usually +1.
..... Click the link for more information. atom; the positive hydrogen ion, H+, consists of a single proton. An example of protonation is the formation of the ammonium groupammonium group,
in chemistry, a positively charged nitrogen atom joined by single bonds to four other atoms or groups. The simplest ammonium group, NH4+, is formed by protonation of ammonia, NH3, e.g.
..... Click the link for more information. NH4+ from ammonia, NH3. Protonation often occurs in the reaction of an acid with a base to form a salt (see acids and basesacids and bases,
two related classes of chemicals; the members of each class have a number of common properties when dissolved in a solvent, usually water. Properties
..... Click the link for more information. ; saltssalt,
chemical compound (other than water) formed by a chemical reaction between an acid and a base (see acids and bases). Characteristics and Classification of Salts
The most familiar salt is sodium chloride, the principal component of common table salt.
..... Click the link for more information. ). Protonation differs from hydrogenationhydrogenation
, chemical reaction of a substance with molecular hydrogen, usually in the presence of a catalyst. A common hydrogenation is the hardening of animal fats or vegetable oils to make them solid at room temperature and improve their stability.
..... Click the link for more information. in that during protonation a change in charge of the protonated species occurs, whereas the charge is unaffected during hydrogenation.