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(cell and molecular biology)
The living portion of a cell considered as a unit; includes the cytoplasm, the nucleus, and the plasma membrane.
Plant, fungal, or bacterial cell that has had its cell wall removed.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



the contents of a plant cell. The protoplast consists of the cell membrane, cytoplasm, and nucleus but lacks the cell wall.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
In the traditional study, the protoplast regeneration applied in genome shuffling was carried out on agar plate.
Nutritional requirements for growth of Vicia hajastana cells and protoplasts at a very low population density in liquid media.
giganteus) by protoplast fusion using polyethylene glycol (PEG).
The transcriptional activity of CMYB1 was examined via dual luciferase reporter assay system in rice protoplast. Protoplasts were transformed with effector plasmids and reporter plasmid containing GAL4, DRE fragments, and minimal cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter in upstream of luciferase.
Cell suspensions are also suitable for protoplast isolation in studies of transitory genetic expression and transformation by Agrobacterium (Torabi et al.
For mass propagation, mutation induced breeding, somatic embryo genesis, protoplast culture, and cell suspension culture, callus induction is the most vital phase among the in vitro studies on banana.
On the basis of experiment with single, non-statolith containing cells, we developed a new model for plant gravity sensing in which we suggest that the entire protoplast acts as the gravity sensor.
have used EMS mutagenesis and interspecific protoplast fusion to isolate improved probiotic yeasts.
Among specific topics are the protoplast transformation of filamentous fungi, developing Impala-based transposon systems for tagging genes in filamentous fungi, identifying differently expressed fungal genes in planta by suppression subtraction hybridization, applying laser micro-dissection to study plant-fungal pathogen interactions, measuring protein kinase and sugar kinase activity in plant pathogenic Fusarium species, and evaluating anti-fungal susceptibility using flow cytometry.
The two methods used in the lab are protoplast formation and spore germination.