is a crystal protein produced by the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) during sporulation.
I'-endotoxin is a globular protein molecule mount up as a protoxin
and released in the gut of a pest in alkaline medium.
The chemical protoxin
MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1-2-3-6- tetrahydropyridine), which produces a clinical parkinsonian syndrome, significantly lowers retinal dopamine.
Ilhuicatzi-Alvarado et al., "Cry1Ac protoxin
from Bacillus thuringiensis promotes macrophage activation by upregulating CD80 and CD86 and by inducing IL-6, MCP-1 and TNF-[alpha] cytokines," International Immunopharmacology, vol.
structures have been documented where a Cry 3-domain protein family with similar mode of action, including Cry1Aa, was grouped.
Cao, Adsorption Thermodynamics of Toxin (65 kDa) and Protoxin
(130 kDa) from Bacillus thuringiensis by Several Minerals, Int.
was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified as described by Yu et al.
Epsilon toxin is protease activated protoxin
that produced mainly by C.
Purification and Protease Digestion of Protoxin
. The wild type Cry1Ac and mutant toxins were purified by the method described elsewhere (Hussain et al., 2010).
The pure protoxin
was eluted by a linear 0-80 per cent ethylene glycol gradient and converted to the 65 kDa mature VCC by passing through a column of bovine trypsin immobilized to Sepharose CL-4B (Sigma, USA) in 100 mM Tris-HCl buffer containing 10 mM Ca[Cl.sub.2], pH 7.8.
Endogenously occurring beta-carbolines induces parkinsonism in non-primate animals: a possible causative protoxin
in idiopathic Parkinson's disease.
Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac protoxin
is a potent systemic and mucosal adjuvant.