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The phage genome.



the genome or part of the genome of a virus integrated with the genetic material of the host cell into united molecules of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). A provirus may result from the infection of cells by certain temperate viruses. Both DNA-containing and some RNA-containing viruses, such as oncornaviruses, can become proviruses. In the latter case, the formation of a provirus is preceded by reverse transcription, that is, by DNA synthesis using the viral RNA molecule as a template.

The provirus replicates during the division of cell chromosomes, with which it may be transmitted from cell to cell. Some of the provirus genes, and occasionally most of them, are usually inactive (repressed) and do not form corresponding proteins. Active provirus genes may cause hereditary changes in cell properties. Examples of such changes are lysogenic conversion and transformation of cells caused by oncogenic viruses. Under certain conditions, the provirus becomes independent of the regulatory systems and begins replicating autonomously. In the case of DNA-containing viruses, this process is accompanied by the liberation of viral genetic material from the cell chromosome. The mechanisms of the formation, functioning, and replication (induction) of the provirus have been studied most thoroughly in temperate bacteriophages. In such viruses, the provirus is called a prophage.


References in periodicals archive ?
An antibody that binds the immunoglobulin CDR3-like region of the CD4 molecule inhibits provirus transcription in HIV-infected T cells.
Monoclonal insertion of HTLV-1 provirus DNA is found in virtually all cases of ATLL and is identified by Southern blotting or polymerase chain reaction.
To date, all the studies included in this review were performed on specific cell lines (macrophages/monocytes, CD4+T-cells, dendritic cells) infected with the HIV-1 provirus.
La informacion actual es que el provirus tiene una tendencia ha integrarse en los cromosomas de gran tamano (14,17,18,21), en regiones con alta densidad de islas CpG y de genes involucrados en el control del ciclo celular, apoptosis y transduccion de senales (14,16-18,20).
This step is catalysed by the viral enzyme IN, and from this point on the provirus will forever form part of the cellular genome.
One hypothesis that could explain these findings is that women with high HTLV-1 provirus loads could be at increased risk for both transmitting the virus and developing HTLV-1-associated diseases.
Una vez que el ADN virico se ha integrado en el genoma celular pasa a denominarse provirus, y se comporta como un gen celular.
The cells that have provirus but are not producing HIV are called 'latently infected'.
Detection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 provirus in mononuclear cells by in situ polymerase chain reaction.
After the provirus is integrated into the host genome, the transcription of HIV genes and the formation of new viral particles may begin.
In Vanconver, John Mellors from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) presented the famous study demonstrating that viral load in chronic infection predicts rate of progression to AIDS (Mellors 1996), and David Ho and Marty Markowitz presented their famous eradication hypothesis, suggesting that if HIV levels in the peripheral blood could be suppressed by combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) for several years, residual amounts of integrated HIV provirus in human cells might eventually be eliminated from the body (Ho 1996, 1998).