Provirus


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provirus

[prō′vī·rəs]
(virology)
The phage genome.

Provirus

 

the genome or part of the genome of a virus integrated with the genetic material of the host cell into united molecules of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). A provirus may result from the infection of cells by certain temperate viruses. Both DNA-containing and some RNA-containing viruses, such as oncornaviruses, can become proviruses. In the latter case, the formation of a provirus is preceded by reverse transcription, that is, by DNA synthesis using the viral RNA molecule as a template.

The provirus replicates during the division of cell chromosomes, with which it may be transmitted from cell to cell. Some of the provirus genes, and occasionally most of them, are usually inactive (repressed) and do not form corresponding proteins. Active provirus genes may cause hereditary changes in cell properties. Examples of such changes are lysogenic conversion and transformation of cells caused by oncogenic viruses. Under certain conditions, the provirus becomes independent of the regulatory systems and begins replicating autonomously. In the case of DNA-containing viruses, this process is accompanied by the liberation of viral genetic material from the cell chromosome. The mechanisms of the formation, functioning, and replication (induction) of the provirus have been studied most thoroughly in temperate bacteriophages. In such viruses, the provirus is called a prophage.

V. I. AGOL

References in periodicals archive ?
(2011) el ganado Blanco Orejinegro no presento DNA proviral de VLB, sin embargo, aunque en este estudio si se encontro el provirus de VLB en la raza BON, el porcentaje de infeccion fue bajo (5%).
Beaulieu et al., "Frequent provirus insertional mutagenesis of Notch1 in thymomas of MMTV(D)/myc transgenic mice suggests a collaboration of c-myc and Notch1 for oncogenesis," Genes & Development, vol.
Three major genome editing technologies have been used to eliminate the HIV provirus, including Zinc-finger nuclease (ZFN) technology, the effects of transcription activator-like effector (TALENS), and clustered normal interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated protein 9 (CRISPR-Cas9) technologies [12-14].
Prediagnostic human T lymphotropic virus type I provirus loads were highest in Jamaican children who developed seborrheic dermatitis and severe anemia.
However, significant differences between the number of HIV-1 and HIV-2 provirus were observed for chromosomes 4, 8, 9, 11 and 16 (p<0.05, [X.sup.2] test).
Transcripcion: El provirus integrado puede permanecer latente por tiempo indefinido o puede forzar la actividad celular a producir RNA viral, el cual puede ser usado para la produccion de proteinas virales, las que con el genoma del virus ensamblan nuevos viriones.
Citation: Bin Xia Yang et al., "Systematic Identification of Factors for Provirus Silencing in Embryonic Stem Cells," Cell, 2015; DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2015.08.037
The research findings described in this media release can be found in the Cell Journal, under the title, "Systematic Identification of Factors for Provirus Silencing in Embryonic Stem Cells" by Bin Xia Yang1,22, Chadi A.
Many tumors induced by the mouse mammary tumor virus contain a provirus integrated in the same region of the host genome.
Genomic integration of bovine leukemia provirus: comparison of persistent lymphocytosis with the lymph node tumor form of enzootic bovine leucosis.