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popular name for a dried plumplum,
common name for a tree of any of many species of the genus Prunus of the family Rosaceae (rose family) and for its fruit, a drupe. The plum is generally cultivated in the temperate zones, though among the numerous varieties and hybrids are types suitable for many
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. Fruits of the many varieties of Prunus domestica, which are firm-fleshed and dry easily without removal of the stone, are gathered after falling from the tree, dipped in lye solution to prevent fermentation, dried in the sun or in kilns, and then "glossed" with a steam, glycerin, or fruit-juice bath to produce a sterile, glossy skin. Most of the commercial product comes from the Pacific coast states. A type of prune was used by Native Americans as a staple item of diet.



a dried plum of the varieties Vengerka Ital’ianskaia, Vengerka Domashniaia, and others. The variety Vengerka Ital’ianskaia yields the best prunes.

Only fleshy ripe plums are suitable for drying. The stone must separate readily from the flesh, and the pulp must contain no less than 10 percent sugar and no more than 1.2 percent acid. The plums are blanched to accelerate drying, remove the waxy coating, and obtain cracks in the skin. Vengerka Ital’ianskaia plums are blanched for 20 to 30 seconds; plums of other varieties are blanched for one to 1 ½ minutes. The plums are then cooled under running water and placed in steam dryers for eight to ten hours at a temperature of 80°C. Toward the end of drying the temperature is lowered to 60°C. After cooling and sorting, the prunes are immersed in boiling water for 1 ½ to two minutes to obtain a shine. They are then treated with glycerin (5 kg per ton of prunes).

There are three grades of commercial prune varieties. Prunes must be black, soft, and tart. The yield of prunes from fresh plums is 20 to 22 percent.

References in periodicals archive ?
Comparison of yearly tree development in unpruned and pruned Howard walnut trees.
There was two weeks of intervals among all treatments and plants was pruned on the second week of December (T1), end of December (T2), second week of January (T3), at end of January (T4) and second week of February (T5).
In May 2009, the no-pruning treatment resulted in the earliest and most vigorous growth, whereas spur pruning had the latest and weakest; hedge pruned were intermediate (see photos above), resembling early canopy development observed in minimally pruned vines.
Unless the plant already has three or four healthy stems growing from the base, all newly planted clematis should be pruned back hard the first spring after planting.
Rejuvenation pruning is used on shrubs that have not been pruned properly and have stopped flowering.
They should therefore be pruned in early spring before growth starts.
Young trees should be pruned regularly to develop a strong structure so that they can live many years without creating a safety hazard.
When conditions are right, all of the dormant buds in the remaining leaf axils (where a leaf joins the stem) of the pruned shoots will form fruit in the following year.
B shows how growth will occur in the same branch pruned differently.
Late summer and autumn flowering shrubs which flower on the current season's growth should be pruned in spring to encourage growth that will flower later that year.