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popular name for a dried plumplum,
common name for a tree of any of many species of the genus Prunus of the family Rosaceae (rose family) and for its fruit, a drupe. The plum is generally cultivated in the temperate zones, though among the numerous varieties and hybrids are types suitable for many
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. Fruits of the many varieties of Prunus domestica, which are firm-fleshed and dry easily without removal of the stone, are gathered after falling from the tree, dipped in lye solution to prevent fermentation, dried in the sun or in kilns, and then "glossed" with a steam, glycerin, or fruit-juice bath to produce a sterile, glossy skin. Most of the commercial product comes from the Pacific coast states. A type of prune was used by Native Americans as a staple item of diet.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a dried plum of the varieties Vengerka Ital’ianskaia, Vengerka Domashniaia, and others. The variety Vengerka Ital’ianskaia yields the best prunes.

Only fleshy ripe plums are suitable for drying. The stone must separate readily from the flesh, and the pulp must contain no less than 10 percent sugar and no more than 1.2 percent acid. The plums are blanched to accelerate drying, remove the waxy coating, and obtain cracks in the skin. Vengerka Ital’ianskaia plums are blanched for 20 to 30 seconds; plums of other varieties are blanched for one to 1 ½ minutes. The plums are then cooled under running water and placed in steam dryers for eight to ten hours at a temperature of 80°C. Toward the end of drying the temperature is lowered to 60°C. After cooling and sorting, the prunes are immersed in boiling water for 1 ½ to two minutes to obtain a shine. They are then treated with glycerin (5 kg per ton of prunes).

There are three grades of commercial prune varieties. Prunes must be black, soft, and tart. The yield of prunes from fresh plums is 20 to 22 percent.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Five replications of each of four pruning and defruiting treatments were implemented in a randomized block design: (T1) unpruned with no fruit removed, (T2) unpruned with fruit removed, (T3) pruned with no fruit removed and (T4) pruned with fruit removed.
There was two weeks of intervals among all treatments and plants was pruned on the second week of December (T1), end of December (T2), second week of January (T3), at end of January (T4) and second week of February (T5).
In May 2009, the no-pruning treatment resulted in the earliest and most vigorous growth, whereas spur pruning had the latest and weakest; hedge pruned were intermediate (see photos above), resembling early canopy development observed in minimally pruned vines.
In addition, two very important issues regarding the wood discolouration should be emphasized in the case of northern red oak trees pruned back in 2007 and 2009:
They are pruned in late winter or early spring to remove much of last year's growth.
Many deciduous shrubs can also be pruned at this time, particularly if they flower during the summer.
Two commonly used trellises are single-wire or double-wire trellis types, which can be spur pruned or cane pruned.
Flowers that appear early in the year on last year's growth such as forsythia, flowering currants, lilac and mock orange must be pruned soon after the flowers have faded.
Keeping trees well pruned and maintaining them at shoulder height also aids in spraying and harvesting.
Look for unnecessary modifers that can be pruned like deadwood from your sentences.
Pruned trees are likely to live longer and be stronger and healthier than trees that are not pruned.