pruning

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pruning,

the horticultural practice of cutting away an unwanted, unnecessary, or undesirable plant part, used most often on trees, shrubs, hedges, and woody vines. Man uses pruning to remove diseased or injured parts of the plant (see tree surgerytree surgery,
practice of repairing damaged trees to restore their appearance and to arrest disease. Injured or diseased parts are first removed (even small cavities in the bark may harbor injurious fungi and insects), the surfaces are treated with antiseptics and healing aids,
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), to influence vertical or lateral growth for various reasons, and to increase flowering or fruit yield. Top pruning, or topping, induces lateral growth, and in fruit trees not only produces a more easily accessible shape but also diverts the expenditure of nourishment from the formation of useless wood to that of buds and fruit. In transplantingtransplanting,
in horticulture, the process of removing a plant from the place where it has been growing and replanting it in another. The major requirement in transplanting (especially of larger plants) is a sufficient water supply, since the roots are almost inevitably injured
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, the aerial parts of the plant are pruned to balance the amount of root destruction, so that the transpiration area is reduced and the roots have a chance to concentrate their activity on establishing contact with the soil. Judicious pruning of garden perennials helps to maintain plant vigor and prolongs blooming. In topiary worktopiary work
, pruning and training of shrubs and trees into ornamental shapes, used in landscape gardening. Elaborate topiary work in which trees and shrubs are clipped to resemble statuary (e.g.
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 shrubs and trees are pruned to form decorative shapes. As in other horticultural practices, the type of pruning and its timing vary and must be adapted to the specific plant and the conditions of its environment.

Bibliography

See E. P. Christopher, The Pruning Manual (1954); R. L. Hudson, The Pruning Handbook (1973); C. Brickell, Pruning (1979).

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References in periodicals archive ?
The objective of our study was to assess the impacts of traditional pruning and no pruning on tree growth and productivity.
Differential pruning and defruiting treatments were initiated in the spring of 2004.
Summer pruning has long been used as a management method for fruit trees.
The above mentioned differences can be attributed to differences in timing and severity of pruning, and because, in some cases, summer pruning was used as a replacement for dormant pruning rather than as a supplement.
under several pruning regimes was studied to evaluate the potential for organic matter production and total nitrogen incorporation into the soil.
KEYWORDS / Pruning Frequency / Pruning Height / Biomass Distribution / Soil Organic Matter /
Eucalyptus and other shrubs that are grown for their foliage benefit too from hard pruning in spring, as it stimulates vigorous growth with larger leaves and brighter colour.
3) Show how landscape design and management practices can influence pruning needs.
COME early November and many people think they have an excuse to go around pruning trees.
Number of annual prunings recommended for nursery production of quality shade trees.
Topiary pruning results in data sets in which the number of taxa has been reduced, permitting them to be examined using a variety of statistical methods.
The nursery and tree care professions have each developed standards for pruning trees.