Exine sculptures of 80% plant pollen were Reticulate while 20% had psilate
pollens (Figure 4).
Two general types of ornamentation were observed: rugulate and psilate
(2010) noted that the pollen grains found in the pollen pockets of 'Ponera ' minuta were psilate
and oblate as those found in other modern Ficus species; and that, 'P'.
Far less amount is represented by the "cylindrical psilate
" (8%) and "reflexed psilate
A striking fact of the evolutionary order of these selected species was that pollen characters related to Dalbergia species were established as porate, and reticulate; those related to Cassia fistula which were psilate
, perfolate, oblate-spheroidal to prolate-spheroidal or sub prolate.
The exine is largely unomamented externally (psilate
to scabrate) and has two layers that are visible using light microscopy (LM).
Ornamentation: Reticulate, reticules medium and irregular, Colpus area and apocolpium are psilate
or slightly reticulate.
Hohenbergia capitata also shares the same pollen morphology with many other species of Hohenbergia, in which the pollen grains are usually diporate or sometimes 3 to 6-porate, with exine often psilate
, sharply contrasting with the typical pollen grains of the members of the "Gravisia complex", which are distinctly pantoporate, usually bearing over 8 pores distributed more or less regularly over the whole surface, with a broadly reticulate exine.
Ash pollen is distinguished from willow by the lack of a psilate
furrow margin, present in willow pollen.
The pollen is grey, subcircular, approximately 25 [micron]m diameter, tricolporate, psilate
exine and granular cytoplasm.
Palaeoenvironmental indicators of environmental change that might indicate early human occupation include microscopic charcoal particles, grass pollen, Pandanus pollen and four types of fern spores (Lycopodium cernuum, Gleichenia linearis, Psilate
lindneri supported by the presence of peltate bracts (character 16), an abscission zone in the base of the peduncle (20), and psilate
pollen (47); and the remaining crown clade defined by non-bracteate flowers (14) which have an incomplete syrinx (29) and containing Euglypha, Holostylis and all the Neotropical species of Aristolochia.