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BaMn9O16(OH)4 A massive, hard, black, botryoidal manganese oxide mineral mixture with a specific gravity ranging from 3.7 to 4.7.



a mineral, a complex hydrous manganese oxide. Its approximate chemical composition is given by the formulas



(Ba, Mn2+)3(O, OH)6Mn84+O16

Psilomelane crystallizes in the monoclinic system. Its structure is formed by chains of the octahedral group MnO6 with large channels, in which barium and molecules of water are positioned as in zeolite minerals. Ba ions in the channels can be replaced by ions of Ca, K, Pb, Zn, Co, Ni, Cu, U, and Sr; the Mn ions can be replaced by those of W, Fe, Al, and V. Psilomelane is opaque, and its color is black, steel gray, or brownish black. Its luster is submetallic; in fine-grained masses, it is dull. In massive form, the hardness on Mohs’ scale is 5–6; in finegrained masses, it is 1–3. The mineral’s density is 4,000–4,700 kg/m3.

Psilomelane occurs admixed with other oxides of manganese and iron in the form of smooth-surfaced, cryptocrystalline, or sinter aggregates. Soft, loosely aggregated substances that soil the fingers and possess a chemical composition similar to that of psilomelane are called wads. Psilomelane is of sedimentary or, less frequently, of hydrothermal origin. It also occurs in the zone of oxidation of oxide, silicate, and carbonate ores of manganese deposits. Psilomelane, together with other minerals that are oxides of manganese, is an important industrial ore in the smelting of ferromanganese. Psilomelane ores deficient in manganese are used for blending in the smelting of ordinary pig iron.


Mineraly: Spravochnik, vol. 2, fasc. 3. Moscow, 1967.
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Balaghat Hollandite, Braunite, Psilomelane, Hematite, Quartz and Apatite.
2), a large tabular body of fault breccia is composed of felsic rock cemented by manganese oxides and containing massive botryoidal psilomelane and braunite, as well as crystals and needles of manganite in rugs with barite.
The cobalt and part of the copper is contained in the manganese oxides, psilomelane and asbolan, probably in solid solutions.