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Related to Psychopathy: antisocial personality disorder
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



(pathological personalities, psychopathic constitutions), a group of mental disorders belonging to minor, or borderline, psychiatry, manifested by a disharmonic personality, as a result of which the individual may cause harm to himself or society. There is no clearly defined line between psychopathy and variants of normal personality types. Classifying psychopathies as mental diseases is arbitrary: unlike diseases that develop in a regular way (onset, course, outcome), psychopathies are stable and lifelong—although the degree to which the pathological traits are manifested may vary—and are usually not associated with delirium, hallucinations, or other symptoms of marked impairment of mental activity. Psychopathies are caused by hereditary factors, intrauterine injuries to the fetus, birth traumas, infections and poisonings in infancy, improper upbringing, and negative social influences.

The manifestations of psychopathies are varied. Several clinical types are distinguished according to the particular personality traits that are dominant. For example, asthenic (impotent) psychopaths are highly impressionable, excitable, and easily fatigued. They tolerate physical and mental stress poorly and are indecisive and depressed. Psychasthenic psychopaths are extremely suspicious; they are filled with perpetual doubts as to the correctness of their judgments and actions and are incapable of making decisions. Excitable (explosive) psychopaths have extremely strong emotional reactions and are unrestrained and inclined to aggressive actions. They have drives and are often addicted to alcohol, which markedly intensifies the manifestation of pathological traits. Paranoic psychopaths are inclined to develop exaggerated ideas that dominate all their impressions and emotions; whatever is not in conformity with these ideas is ignored. Paranoic personalities include pathologically jealous and litigious persons and fanatics. Hysterical psychopaths tend to indulge in fantasies, which, as it were, substitute as reality for them. The behavior of hysterical psychopaths is characterized by affectation and theatricality. There are also other types of psychopathies. Conditions similar to psychopathies may result from schizophrenia and organic brain disease.

Psychopathies can be prevented and treated by proper upbringing in childhood and the constant corrective influence of the family, school, and fellow workers. Psychotherapy and psychotropic agents are indicated in decompensation of psychopathies and in situations where psychopathies make day-to-day living difficult.


Gannushkin, P. B. Klinika psikhopatii: Ikh statika, dinamika, sistematika. Moscow, 1933.
Kerbikov, O. V. “K ucheniiu o dinamike psikhopatii.” In Izbr. trudy. Moscow, 1971. Pages 163–87.
Leonhard, K. Normale und abnorme Pers ö nlichkeiten. Berlin, 1964.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Psychopathy is an extreme form of antisocial behaviour, with about 1% prevalence in the general population, and 10-30% prevalence among incarcerated criminal offenders.
Dark Triad Scale encompasses Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy. Sample items for each trait were "I tend to want others to admire me"; "I have used deceit and lied to get my way" and "I tend to be callous or insensitive", respectively.
"Snakes in suits: When Psychopaths go to work", Hare and another researcher, Paul Babiak, looked at 203 corporate professionals and found about four per cent scored sufficiently highly on the PCL-R to be evaluated for psychopathy.
The sub-clinical psychopathy constitutes two main factors: primary psychopathy (Factor I) further classified as callous affect (low empathy) and interpersonal manipulation; and secondary psychopathy (Factor II) defined through erratic lifestyle and anti-social behavior like, crime3,5.
From the Table 1 it can be seen that the mean score of the group in the Psychopathy subscale is 2.49 which falls within the range of average scores.
Trolls have lower affective empathy, and psychopathy moderates cognitive empathy.
Even accounting academic research is becoming curious about how DT personalities may potentially exert a pernicious influence on financial reporting and auditing; several studies posit that CEOs and CFOs may possess DT personalities, with one finding that psychopathy was the trait most strongly linked to bullying behaviors, followed by Machiavellianism and narcissism.
Abstract Most of the literature on psychopathy is focused on its measurement.
Although prisoners were used as research, their criminal background was not a factor in the questioning and Dr Boduszek's aim was to devise a scale that would grasp the essence of psychopathy, without being influenced by the subject's background characteristics, even criminal acts.
The Adolescent Peer Relations Instruments (Parada, 2000) was used to assess bullying and victimization, and the Short D3 (Jones and Paulhus, 2014) was used to measure three dark triads i.e., machiavellianism, narcissism and psychopathy. Results indicated that machiavellianism and psychopathy were positively related to bullying and narcissism was positively related to victimization.