psychosomatic medicine


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psychosomatic medicine

(sī'kōsōmăt`ĭk), study and treatment of those emotional disturbances that are manifested as physical disorders. The term psychosomatic emphasizes essential unity of the psyche and the soma, a combination rooted in ancient Greek medicine. Common disorders caused at least partly by psychological factors include childhood asthmaasthma
, chronic inflammatory respiratory disease characterized by periodic attacks of wheezing, shortness of breath, and a tight feeling in the chest. A cough producing sticky mucus is symptomatic.
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, certain gastrointestinal problems, hypertension, endocrine disturbances, diabetes, and possibly even heart disease. In most psychosomatic conditions there is some interaction between psychological factors and physiological predisposition to the illness. Sigmund FreudFreud, Sigmund
, 1856–1939, Austrian psychiatrist, founder of psychoanalysis. Born in Moravia, he lived most of his life in Vienna, receiving his medical degree from the Univ. of Vienna in 1881.

His medical career began with an apprenticeship (1885–86) under J.
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, at the end of the 19th cent., laid the scientific groundwork for psychosomatic study, with his theoretical formulations based on new methods of treating hysteriahysteria
, in psychology, a disorder commonly known today as conversion disorder, in which a psychological conflict is converted into a bodily disturbance. It is distinguished from hypochondria by the fact that its sufferers do not generally confuse their condition with real,
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. His methods were reinforced by the psychobiology of the American psychiatrist Adolf Meyer and the research of the American physiologist W. B. Cannon on the physiological effects of acute emotion. The treatment of psychosomatic ailments may involve a medical regimen as well as some form of psychotherapypsychotherapy,
treatment of mental and emotional disorders using psychological methods. Psychotherapy, thus, does not include physiological interventions, such as drug therapy or electroconvulsive therapy, although it may be used in combination with such methods.
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 for the patient. In recent years, psychosomatic medicine has been subsumed under the broader field of behavioral medicine, which includes the study of a wider range of physical ailments. Understanding the psychological causes of various ailments is crucial: studies suggest that a large percentage of deaths are rooted in behavior. In the 1960s, concepts related to conditioning gained prominence, as researchers found that humans and animals could learn to control their autonomic nervous system responses, usually involved in psychosomatic complaints. Emerging from this research came the technique of biofeedback that provides individuals with information concerning their own physiological responses, which they may begin to alter through conscious techniques of control. The newest area of research related to psychosomatic medicine has been called psychoneuroimmunology, the study of the interactions of the endocrine system, central nervous system, and immune system. Researchers believe that studies of these biological systems can help to show how an individual becomes vulnerable to illness.

Bibliography

See J. M. Kuldau, ed., Treatment for Psychosomatic Problems (1982); C. P. Wilson and I. L. Mintz, ed., Psychosomatic Symptoms (1989).

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References in periodicals archive ?
The multiple and competing discourses of health provision existing in Australia today underpin current understandings of psychosomatic medicine. The biomedical model positing the body as machine, comprised of component parts treatable in isolation from one another, dominates medicine, while the more holistic biopsychosocial model, which takes into account the body, mind and social determinants, structures policy provision.
Psychosomatic medicine aims at developing and perfecting the diagnosis method and the appropriate treatment, adapted to unique needs of the patients.
The findings, published in the journal Psychosomatic Medicine, showed that the average cortisol level-a biological marker of the body's stress response - among 113 of low-income children who lived in poor neighbourhoods reached the 75th percentile.
Specialists in sleep and psychosomatic medicine present a broad reference for physicians in other specialties that includes principal research results, many examples, and discussion of applications.
(2.) The Guidelines and Evidence-Based Medicine Subcommittee of the Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine (APM); The European Association of Psychosomatic Medicine (EAPM).
The study was published last year in the journal Psychosomatic Medicine. The researchers assessed psychological wellbeing of more than 1,000 participants at baseline and again at a five-year follow-up by asking the participants to rate the extent that they had felt 10 specified positive emotions, including "interested," "proud," "enthusiastic" and "inspired." Patients who reported higher positive psychological states were more likely to be physically active, sleep better and take their heart medications.
In one study I discussed in The Happiness Advantage and originally published in Psychosomatic Medicine in 2000, researchers separated 156 adult volunteers with major depressive disorders into three groups: One group took antidepressant medication, one group exercised for 45 minutes three times a week, and one group did both.
Griffith, also chair of psychiatry and psychosomatic medicine at the university.
The review was published in the March 18 online edition of Psychosomatic Medicine.
The research is published online in Psychosomatic Medicine. ( ANI )
Recent research (Psychosomatic Medicine: Journal of Biobehavioral Medicine, Oct.
Rumailah Hospital's Department of Psychiatry Consultant Liaison/Psychosomatic Fellowship Programme has been invited to join the prestigious American Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine (APM).