The researches on low temperature anaerobic digestion for methane production are mainly concentrated on low temperature acclimatized mesophiles which are psychrotrophs not exact psychrophiles
(Kashyap et al.
Other possible sources of cold enzymes are offered by the psychrophiles
that inhabit at ~5[degrees]C in other permanently cold environments such as the deep sea, glaciers and mountain regions, in soils, and fresh or saline waters related with cold-blooded animals such as fish or crustaceans and artificial sources such as refrigeration appliances and equipments [2-6].
This enzyme is present in psychrophiles
[4, 7], mesophiles , thermophiles [9, 10], and hyperthermophiles [11, 12].
, or organisms that live in extreme cold, were found, along with heat-loving thermophiles, which suggests the presence of hydrothermal vents deep in the lake.
The extreme- ophiles majorly include; Halophiles, Thermophiles, Barophiles, Psychrophiles
and Acidophiles .
and psychrotolerant microorganisms like Listeria monocytogens, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus species, Salmonella species, Shigella species, Streptococus spp., Pseudomonas spp., Campylobacter spp., Brucella spp.
though present in fewer number in the samples could bring about significant spoilage of the fish.
Some specific topics discussed include enzyme function at low temperatures in psychrophiles
, alkaline adaptation of proteins, and organic solvent- stable enzymes.
McGown, D., Boettiger, C., Davidson, M., Chan, E., Onstott, T.C., Pratt, L.M., Bakermans, C., Thomashow, M., Miller, S., Balkwill, D., Soffentino, B., Ruskeeniemi, T., Ahohen, L., Telling, J., Sherwood Lollar, B., Frape, S., and Stotler, R., 2006, Species diversity and sulfur metabolism of psychrophiles
in a deep subpermafrost brine in the Canadian Arctic: Astrobiology, v.
Within that range there are organisms that grow best when the temperature is < 10[degrees]C (< 50[degrees]F; cryophiles or psychrophiles
), 10 to 40[degrees]C (50 to 104[degrees]F; mesophiles), and > 40[degrees]C (> 104[degrees]F; thermophiles).
Moreover, they were found glaciated in Antarctic ice where such psychrophiles
were reanimated after surviving untold epochs in frozen stasis.