Sialolithiasis(redirected from ptyalolithiasis)
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a disease in man characterized by the formation of calculi within a salivary gland or excretory duct. Sialolithiasis is caused by the chronic inflammation of a gland. The submandibular gland is usually affected, with the causative agent being an inflammatory disease in the teeth of the lower jaw. The concentration of mineral salts in the saliva increases, and the passage of saliva through the ducts is decelerated. The mineral salts, which are usually calcium phosphate and calcium carbonate, are deposited on a cellular base of a duct or glandular body.
A salivary calculus weighs from several milligrams to several grams. If a calculus is small, the gland temporarily enlarges, causing a dull pain. A large calculus can completely close a ductal lumen, causing severe retention of saliva, acute pain in the submandibular region, and, often, a glandular abscess or phlegmon.
Sialolithiasis is sometimes treated with medications, including antiseptics and antispasmodics; surgical treatment is more common.