The presence of long-term effects from pugging in the Horotiu soil is of special interest.
Lack of significant differences in some tests between U and PP treatments may have been the result of U treatments already showing some long-term effects from past pugging damage (compare pores [is greater than] 30 [micro]m and aggregates [is less than] 20 mm for the Hauraki soil; Fig.
During a pugging event, soil in the 0-50 mm layer was more likely to have flowed as a liquid around the hoof and this depth would not necessarily have been compacted.
Grazing management studies designed to decrease the incidence of pugging damage, and thus achieve a higher proportion of soil physical properties falling within the NT range, would be worthwhile in helping to maintain soil quality.
However, further problems may arise in the future, particularly if pugging under intensive stocking rates continues.
Strategies to ameliorate and avoid pugging damage, particularly on the Te Kowhai and Hauraki soils, are required to maintain macroporosity at adequate levels and increase infiltration rates of previously pugged soil.
Soil physical condition also had not fully recovered at least 18 months after a pugging event.