Stenosis

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Related to pulmonary artery stenosis: arterial switch operation

stenosis

[stə′nō·səs]
(medicine)
Constriction or narrowing, as of the heart or blood vessels.

Stenosis

 

the narrowing of a physiological opening or the lumen of a tubular organ. Examples of the former include stenosis of the left atrioventricular orifice of the heart, or mitral stenosis. Examples of the latter include stenosis of the intestine, trachea, bronchi, arteries, or pylorus of the stomach (pylorostenosis).

Stenoses may be congenital (developmental anomalies) or acquired, in which case they may be caused by a tumor or by scarring following an inflammatory process, ulcer, or trauma. Organic strictures are distinguished from functional stenoses, which result from a spasm of the musculature. Severe stenosis hampers the movement of blood, food, and air, and consequently the musculature of the organ located above the stenosis hypertrophies (compensated stenosis). Later, muscle tone decreases, the lumen of the organ above the stricture enlarges substantially, and the movement through the narrowed part becomes disrupted (decompensated stenosis).

Stenosis is treated surgically by enlarging the affected orifice, as in some cases of heart disease, by passing a bougie through the structure involved, by excising the constricted part, or by performing plastic surgery.

References in periodicals archive ?
Sheikh et al12 found similar results regarding incidence of left pulmonary artery stenosis, they found 10.4% incidence of LPA stenosis in patients of TOF.
In patients with left pulmonary artery stenosis, left pulmonary artery was augmented with autologous pericardial patch.
There was no case of left pulmonary artery stenosis. There was no case of device embolization, hemolysis or limb ischemia.
DiscussionConotruncal abnormalities constitute the majority of defects in infants presenting with symptomatic cyanotic congenital heart disease during their first year of life.5Being a complex conotruncal abnormality with substantial anatomic variations DORV has been variably defined by different authors.6 DORV has been listed as a congenital cyanotic heart disease with an admixture of physiology (a cardiac defect which facilitates complete mixing of the deoxygenated systemic venous (SV) blood returning from the tissues and the fully oxygenated pulmonary venous blood from the lungs in a common receiving chamber7) and the degree of cyanosis depends upon the type of DORV present being pronounced in the presence of pulmonary artery stenosis as was seen in our case.
(1) Other cardiopathies include pulmonary artery stenosis, aortic hypoplasia, coarctation of the aorta, mitral valve prolapse, and septal defects.
Among other associated lesions 10% (n=4) patients had secundum ASD, pulmonary artery stenosis was seen in 5% (n=2) patients.
If the substrate (dysplastic valves without commissural fusion, supravalvar pulmonary artery stenosis, or severe fixed infundibular obstruction) is the problem, surgical intervention may become necessary.

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