Aspergillosis

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aspergillosis

[‚as·pər·jil′ō·səs]
(medicine)
A rare fungus infection of humans and animals caused by several species of Aspergillus.

Aspergillosis

 

an infectious disease of man, birds, and more rarely other animals. The disease is caused by pathogenic microscopic fungi of the genus Aspergillus (A. mich.). The main reservoir of the fungus is diseased animals.

In man aspergillosis affects the skin, mucous membranes, and internal organs, most often the bronchi and lungs. In birds the disease may arise as a result of feeding upon the waste products of incubation, such as unfertilized eggs, and dead embryos infected with Aspergillus fungi. Factors predisposing to aspergillosis are inadequate feeding and keeping the poultry in crowded, unsanitary conditions. Among ducks and geese aspergillosis is observed in the spring, most often in May.

Aspergillosis is found everywhere and causes considerable economic losses to the poultry industry. From 46 to 90 percent of the young birds may die. The spores of the fungi penetrate the respiratory tract and cause pathological changes in the area in which they ultimately become implanted and develop. The incubationary (hidden) period of the disease is from three to ten days. The main symptoms are lethargy; lack of motion; when inhaling, the diseased bird stretches out its neck and head forward and upward, opens its beak, and swallows air; frequent coughing; and a foaming liquid flow from the beak and nose. In cattle the symptoms are a dry cough, impairment of rumination, dyspnea, and rale. The diagnosis is established on the basis of a complex of clinical and other data. Preventive measures include favorable sanitary and hygienic living conditions, adequate nutrition, strict veterinary and sanitary control of feed, and timely disinfection.

Aspergillosis of bees is a fungus infection caused by the species A. flavus and A. niger. Bees infected with aspergillosis weaken and quickly die. The abdomen of a diseased bee feels hard when pressed. The dead bodies of bees, larvae, and pupae dry out into hard wrinkled lumps which become greenish-yellow or black in one or two days. Cool, damp weather aids the spread of aspergillosis of bees. The disease most often arises in hives located in shady, damp places. Preventive measures include placing hives in dry, sunlit places and timely disinfection. Combs with infected brood should be remade, the bees should be removed to dry, clean hives, and honey or sugar syrup containing 17 to 19 percent water should be added to their diet.

REFERENCES

Poltev, V. I. Bolezni pchel, 4th ed. Leningrad, 1964.
Spesivtseva, N. A. Mikozy i mikotoksikozy, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1964.
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Clinical presentation of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis includes pleuritic chest pain, dyspnea, hemoptysis, dry cough, and fever (11).
In view of numerous accompanying factors and comorbidities potentially affecting the immunological status in our recruited subjects, we constructed a multiple linear regression model for predicting serum IL-1B using age, gender, BMI, smoking status, TB, NTM infection, lung abscess, other acute respiratory infection, cancer, COPD, AIP, sarcoidosis, other interstitial diseases, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cardiac disease, cerebrovascular disease, systemic CS or IS therapy, and pulmonary surgery history as covariates in all the subjects with chronic pulmonary aspergillosis to screen for factors influencing serum IL-1B.
We found chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (aspergilloma cavity containing the fungal ball) in the right upper lobe.
Pharmacodynamic activity of amphotericin B deoxycholate is associated with peak plasma concentrations in a neutropenic murine model of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother.
Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis can be fatal, particularly in people with immunodeficiency.
Diagnosing in due time an invasive pulmonary aspergillosis requires, besides a high clinical suspicion, the preemptive use of imagistic and serologic diagnostic tools and prompt initiation of the antifungal therapy.
Finally, he had no history of tracheobronchial or pulmonary aspergillosis, or any other focus of hematogenous dissemination on imaging, confirming isolated laryngeal involvement.
With preliminary diagnosis of probable invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, Amp B was switched to voriconazole (loading dose of 6 mg/kg, ql2h, 2 doses; maintenance of 4 mg/kg, ql2h).
It has generally been accepted that pulmonary aspergillosis can be divided into invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA), chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA), simple pulmonary aspergilloma (SPA), and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) [5,6].
Spectrum of pulmonary aspergillosis: histologic, clinical, and radiologic findings.

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