Parameter Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 1 Pulse duration
([MICRO]S) 0.3 0.5 0.7 2 Pulse interval ([MICRO]S) 5 7 9 3 Servo voltage (V) 15 25 35 4 Ignition pulse current (Amp) 8 12 16 TABLE 3 Machining parameter (according to [L.sub.9][3.sup.4] orthogonal array).
Caption: Figure 6: Dependencies of the nanocrystals' size (a) and partial volume of the crystalline phase (b) on the power density of laser irradiation with 10 ns pulse duration
for sample #7.
(18) Laser application is performed at pulse durations
of 100-200 ms, spot size of 500 [micro]m, and power ranging between 100 and 750 mW to produce gray-white burns.
is selectable from 40 ms, 100 ms, 200 ms, 350 ms, and 400 ms while both output resistance and output voltage are programmable in small increments.
The 5 points consisted of 2 constant pulse durations
(100 and 500 ps) and 3 pulse amplitudes to span the range between threshold and maximum comfort level.
Tensile strengths and elongations of control specimens (grades 2 and 3) and the specimens laser-treated with various parameters (current, spot diameter, and pulse duration
) for laser emission are presented in Figure 3 through Figure 6.
where [[gamma].sub.1] and [[gamma].sub.2] are the dimensionless displacements, respectively, [[omega].sub.1] = [square root of [k.sub.1]/[m.sub.1]] and [[omega].sub.2] = [square root of 2[k.sub.2]/[m.sub.2]] are circular frequency parameters of the system, T = 1/[[omega].sub.2] is taken as the period parameter of the system, [tau] is the dimensionless pulse time, [[tau].sub.0] is the dimensionless pulse duration
, [[lambda].sub.1] is frequency parameter ratio of system, and [[lambda].sub.2] is mass ratio of system.
These experimental results showed that the load amplitude does not affect the longitudinal pulse duration
The pulse duration
is 78 ps and the pulse separation between the neighboring solitons is 28.3 ps.
Fluence and pulse duration
of IPL was selected according to the patient's Fitzpatrick skin type.
With the leap in laser technology from pulse duration
measured in nanoseconds (1 billionth of a second) to one measured in femtoseconds (1 quadrillionth of a second) new vistas opened in the practice of cataract surgery.
1) Identifying the right pulse duration
for this type of processing,